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Full text of "Botanical Museum leaflets, Harvard University"

BOTANICAL MUSEUM 

LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



PRINTED AND PUBLISHED AT Till 

BOTANICAL MUSEUM 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



VOLUME XXII 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM 
C A M B III DG E , M A SS A C H U SETTS 

1967-1970 



riA 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Number 1 (September 8, 19(>7) 

Bat Cave Revisited 

By Paul C. Mangelsdorf, Herbert W. Dick 
and Julian Camara-H eknaxdez 1 



Number 2 (December 27, 19G7) 

Prehistoric Maize, Teosinte, and Tripsacum from 
Tamaulipas, Mexico 

By Paul C. Mangelsdorf, Richard S. 

MacNeish and Walton C. Gai.inat ... 33 



Number 3 (November 22, 19G8) 

Catalogue of Infrared Spectra of Fossil Resins 
(Ambers) I — North and South America 

By Jean H. Langenheim and Curt W. Beck G5 



Number 4 (January 10, 1969) 

De Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropical e 
Commentationes III. Phytochemical Exami- 
nation of Spruce's Original Collection of 
Banisteriopsis Caapi 

By Richard Evans Sciiultes, Bo Holmstedt 
and Jan-Erik Lindgren 121 



De Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropicale 
Commentationes IV 

By Richard Evans Schultes 133 



v 



Number 5 (June 13, 1969) 

Tree Datura Drugs of the Colombian Sibundoy 

By Melvin L. Bristoi 165 



NuxMBER 6 (June 25, 1909) 

De Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropicale 
Commentationes V. Virola as an orally ad- 
ministered hallucinogen 

By Richard Evans Schultes '229 



Number 7 (November 21, 19(39) 



A New Amazonian Arrow Poison : Ocotca venenosa 
Bv A.J. Kostermans, Homer V. Pinkley and 
William L. Stern 241 



Blanche Ames Ames (1878-1909) — An Appreciation 

By Richard Evans Schultes 253 

Four New Species of Saurauia from South America 

By D.i a.i a D. Soejarto 205 



Number 8 (December 20, 1909) 

Natural and Artificial Hybrid Generic Names of 

Orchids. Supplement 1 : 1900-1909 

By Leslie A. Garay and Herman R. Sweet 273 



Number 9 (April 30, 1970) 
Teosinte Introgression in the Maize of the Nobo- 

game Valley 

Bv II. Garrison Wilkes 297 



Farly Fight-Rowed Maize from the Middle Rio 
Grande Valley, New Mexico 

By Walton C. Galinat, Theodore R. 

Reinhart and Theodore R. Frishie . . 

[vi] 



. 31.*J 



Number 10 (June 29, 1970) 

Ethnogynecological Notes in the Harvard Univer- 
sity Herbaria 

By Siri von Reis Altschui 333 



l)e Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropicale 
Commentationes VII. Several Ethnotoxicologi- 
cal Notes from the Colombian Amazon 

By Richard Evans Schultes 345 



t vii 1 



INDKX OF ILLISTRATIONS 



PLATE 



Ambelania Lopezii Woods .... LXXX, LXXXl 



Banisteriopsis Caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) Morton 

XXIX, XXXI-XXXIU 



Hliinche Ames Ames LX\'I 



Blanche Ames Ames and Oakes Ames . . LXXIII 



Calopogon pulchellus (Salisb.) R.Br LXIX 



Chelonanthus alatus (Avbl.) Pul/c XL 



Connarus opacus Schcllenb 



xxx\ 



T 



Connarus Schultesii Standi XXXVI 



Cypripedium Calceolus />. 

var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll LXXI 



Datura Candida (Pcrs.) Stiff, cultivars 



XLIX-LI, L1I1, LV-LXJ 



Datura cultivars \A\ 



Datura sanguinea R. 8$ P. cultivars LIV 



Davidia involucrata JBaill. (Dove Tree) . . LXVII 



Distictella racemosa (Bur. et K. Schum.) Urb. 



LXXXII 



Duroia hirsuta {P. &, K.) Schum XL 1 1 

[ viii ] 



Duroia petiolaris Hook.f. 



• • 




L1V 



Duroia saccifera {Mart.) Benth. § Hook.f. . XLIII 



Epidendrum tampense Lindl LXXII 



Evidence of teosinte introgression and maize X 



teosinte hybridization 



LXXVI 



Habenaria nivea (Nutt.) Sprcng LXX 



Infrared spectra of amber XIV-XXVIII 



Lisianthus nigrescens Cham, et Schlcehtd. . . . XL I 



Maize of the Nobogame Valley LXXV 



Map of maize-containing sites in New Mexico LXXIX 



Map of the area of the Colombian Amazon 

inhabited by Witoto Indians LXII 



Map of the Valley of Sibundoy, Colombia . XLVIII 



Martinella obovata (HBK.) Bur. et K. Schum. 



LXXXIII 



Ocotea venenosa Kosterm. et Pinkley . . LXIV, LXV 



Polyradicion Lindenii (Lindl. ) Garay . . . LXV1II 



Prehistoric maize from Bat Cave I— VII 



Prehistoric maize from Tamaulipas VIJI-XI, XIII 



Prehistoric teosinte from Tamaulipas XII 



Prehistoric Tripsacum from Tamaulipas . . . XIII 



Psychotria involucrata Sw XLVI 

[ix] 



Psychotria nudiceps Standi 



XLY 



Psychotria psychotriaetblia (Seem.) Standi. . XLY 1 1 



Richard Spruce 



XXX 



llourea glabra HB K XXX Yl I 



Schoenobiblus peru vianus Standi XXXYIII 



Stelis pendulispica Ames LXXIV 



Stvrax Tessmannii Perk 



XXXIX 



Teosinte-pollinated maize ears LXXYIII 



Tripsacoid characters in maize cobs . . . LXXVIJ 



Unonopsis veneficiorum {Mart.) R.E. Fr. . XXX I Y 



Virola theiodora (Spr. ex Bth.) Warburg . . LXIII 



[x] 



INDE 




TO GENERA AND SPECIES 



AGATHIS, 79,83, 89,90 
australis L. , 89 

AGERATUM 

conyzoides, 338 

agua, 204 

agua blanca, 191, 192 

ACTINIDIACEAE, 205 

ALLOPLECTUS 

semicordatus P. 8? 22. , 151 

amaraguna, 148 

amaron, 185, 209 

amaron borrachera, 209 

AMBELANIA 

Lopezii Woods, ex R.E. 
Sckult., 347-349, 351 

amber, 05—120 

ANADENANTHERA 

colubrina, 237 
peregrina, 230, 237 

andaqui, 185, 223 

amiaqui borrachera, 223, 224 

Annonaceae, 134, 337 



i 



\PHANA 



sp., 337 



Apocynaceae, 337, 347 
Araceae, 345 
ARAUCARIA, 78, 83 

Araucariac fak, 78,79,82,83,89 



ARAUCARIOXYLON, 83 
ARAUCARIACITES 

australis Cook, , 78 
ARAUCARITES, 83 

longifolia, 89 

ARISTOLOCHIA 

sp., 341 

Aristolochiaceae, 341 

arrovv r poisons, 130, 114, 241 
251, 317, 351 



ayahuasca. 121, 23 



r 

/ 



BANISTERIA, 122 

Caapi Spruce ex Griseb., 122, 

124 
sp., 120, 127 

BANISTERIOPSIS, 122, 158 

Caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) 
Morton, 122,123,120,128, 
129, 104, 237 

inebrians, 104, 237 

Rusbyana, 104, 230, 237 

spp., 191, 192, 195 

beans, 182, 297 

BESLERIA 

ignea Fritsch., 151 

be-zia, 148 

biangdn, 185, 208 

biangdn borrachera, 188, 190, 
208, 209 



biaxii. 195 



[xi] 



BlONONIACEAE, 337 

bianco, 204 

Boraginaceae, 336-338, 340 

borracha, 202 

borracho, 202 

borrachera, 168, 184, 185, 187, 
190, 193, 202, 204, 200 

borrachera de agua, 202 

borrachero, 206,214 

borracherushe, 202 

BRACHYPHYLLUM- 
PAGIOPHYLLUM, 79 

BRUGMANSIA 

arborea Lagerh., 201 
awrea Lagerh. , 201 

bicolor Pers., 19S 

Candida Pers. , 20 1 
sanguinea D.Don, 198 

fat-fjA borrachera, 204, 205, 208 

bui-ish borracherushe, 205 

BULBOSTYLIS 

capillaris, 339 

BUNCIIOSIA, 124 

buru/idanga, 19 1 

frtf^l*, 202, 204 

fciiylj borrachera, 202, 204, 205 

buy fa borracherushe, 202 

BYRSONEMA, 124 

cad-pi, 127 

azopi, 121, 122, 12 1., 126, 127, 
237 

caapi-pinima, 127 

calientes, 190 



CALOPOGON 

pulchellus(&z/u&.) R.Br., 259 



Campanulaceae, 341 
CAMPELIA 

zanonia, 338 

CAXAVALIA 

sp., 341 
car/', 185, 214 
car/ borrachero, 2 1 3 

CENTROPOGON 

calycinus, 341 

CEPHALOTAXUS, 73 

chalua borrachero, 214 

CHELONANTHUS, 151 

alatus (tub/.) Puile, 146, 147 

chclonoides (L. ) Gilg., 148 

c///e/m, 193, 347 
chontaruco, 185, 208 
chontaruco borrachera, 208 

CoMMELINACEAE, 338 

Compositae, 336, 338, 339 

CoNNARACEAE, 136, 138 

CONNARUS 

lentiginosus Brandg., 140 

opacus Schel/enb. , 136, 137 

Schultesii Standi, ex Schult. , 
138-140 

Sprucei Baker, 137 

CONOMORPHA 

citrifolia Mies, 846 

CREMASTUS 

sceptrum, 337 

CRYPTOCARYA 

Bowiei (Hook.) Druce, 244, 
246 

cuauhchichic, 1 34 
cwctt, 185, 211 



[xii] 



culebra, 185, 220 

culebra borrachera, 185, 189- 
191, 220, 222 

cumala, 232 

CUNNINGHAMITES, 83 

ClJPRESSACEAE, 79, 82 

CUPRESSINOXYLON, 82 

Bibbinsii, 82 
curare, 136,144,351 

CYPERUS 

brevifolius, 341 

CYPRIPEDIUM 

Calceolus L. 

var. pubescens (IVilld.) 
Correll, 261 

CYRTANDRA 

Cumingii, 337 
sp., 337 

DAMMARA, 83 

australis Lamb., 89 
microlepis Heer, 80 

danta, 185, 208 

danta borrachera, 190, 208 

DATURA, 160, 168-170, 176- 
181, 184, 187-193, 195-198, 
205, 212, 213, 215, 218, 223 
affinis Saff. , 201 
arborea R. & P., 201 
aurea Lagerh., 201 
c.v. 'Andres', 174, 179, 183, 

186, 189, 198,218,222,223 

Candida (Pers.)Saff., 170, 172, 
173,175,176,178,180-182, 

184,190,197,200-203,218, 



c.v.'Amaron', 172-176,178- 
180,183,186,188,198,209, 



i.) 



10 



222,223 



c.v.'Biangair, 172, 174-177, 

179,183,186,187,198,206- 
208 

c.v.'BuyeV, 168-180,182, 
183, 186, 187, 198, 202, 
203, 205, 209 

c.v. 'Culebra', 170, 172-176, 
179, 183, 186-190, 192, 
193,195,198,205,218-221 

c.v.'Dientes', 173-177,179, 

180,183, 186, 187, 198,204 

c.v. 'Munchira',172, 174, 175, 
179, 183, 184, 186, 189, 
193-195, 198,213,216,217 

c.v. 'Ocre', 172-175, 179, 183, 

186,187,198,206 

c.v.'Quinde', 172, 174-181, 

183, 188, 189, 193, 198, 
213, 215 
c.v. Salaman', 174, 175, 179, 

183, 184, 186, 188, 193, 

198, 212, 213 

cornigera, 196 
dolichocarpa {Lagerh.) Saff., 

223 
Pit tier i Saff., 201 
sanguinea R. <5j- P., 168, 170, 

196, 198, 204, 220 
c.v. Guamuco', 179, 183, 
186, 187, 197, 199, 200 
c.v. Sangre, 179, 183, 186, 

187, 197, 201 
sect. Brugmansia, 166 

Stramonium, 181,218 

suaveolens //. Sf B. ex IVilld., 

208, 218, 220, 223 
vulcanicola A. S. Barkley, 170 

DAVID1A 



involucrata Bail!., 257 



[ xiii ] 



DAVILLA 

lacunosa, 34 1 

DEHAASIA 

triandra, 25 1 

DESMOS 

Hancei, 337 

DlLLENIACEAE, 311 
DlPTERA, 99 

distictella 

raceraosa {Bur. Sr K. Schum. 
ex Mart.) Urban, 34-7, 350, 
351 

l)l T BOISIA, 196 

DUROIA, 151 

hirsuta (/\ c\ E.) K. Schum., 

152-154 
kotchubaeoides Steyerm., 

154, 155 

petiolaris \Spr.) llook.f., 154, 
157 

saccifera {Mart.) Hooh.f., 
1 55, 156 

Sprucei Busby, 150 

DYALANTHERA 

parviflora, 238 

ELEUTHERINE 

bulbosa, 339 

plicata, 339 

epend, 237 

EPIDENDRUM 

tampense LindL, 262 
EPIGYNUM 

Maingayi, 337 

ethno^ynecological plants, 333— 
343 



EUPHORBIACEAE, 142, 330, 340, 

341 






FA RAD A YA 

sp. , 337 
fish poisons, 138, 140, 144, 347 

Flacourtiaceae, 142 

Jloripondio, 185, 204 
jioripondio bianco, 202 
jloripundo, 202 

FRANSERIA 

ambrosioides, 339 

GARRY A, 134 

laurifolia (Hartxc, ) Benth. , 1 34 
var. macTophylla (Hartic.) 

fVangerin, 1 34 
Garryaceae, 134 

GEINITZIA, 83 

Reichenbachii (Geinitz) Hall. 

Sf Jeff. , 8 2 
Gentianaceae, 1 46 

Gesneriaceae, 15 1, 337 
gingive-k'o 9 243 

GLOCHIDION 

cauliflorum, 340 

GLYPTOSTROBUS, 94 

Gramineae, 836, 339, 341 

guambia, 200 

guamuco, 185, 200, 201, 204 
guamuco bianco, 185, 202 
guamuco borracliera, 200, 201 
guamuco Jloripundo, 185, 202 

GUSTAVIA 

Poeppigiana Berg, ex Mart., 

2 33 

HABENARIA 

nivea (Xutt.) Spreng., 260 



[ xi\ 



HAEMADICTYON, 127 

hallucinogens, 121-132, 1 64, 
168, 188-192, 229-2 40 

HAPLOPAPPUS 

spinulosus, 339 

HELIOTROPIUM 

argenteum, 340 
he-rog, 233 

HINTONIA 

latiflora, 338 

ho-ko-so- go- no, 1 46 
huilca, 237 

HYMENAEA, 92-94,96,99, 

100 

Courbaril L. , 92-94, 96, 99, 
100 

HYOSCYAMUS, 196 
HYPODAPHNIS 

Zenkeri, 251 

IcAClNACEAE, 337 

INAPERTUROPOLLENITES 

dubius (Potonie fy Venitz) 
Thompson Sf Pflug, 79 

inzo'Stsi, 246 

IOSTEPHANE 

heterophylla, 339 

IRESINE 

celosia L. , 1 84 
herbstii Hook J 1 . , 184 

Iridaceae, 339 

i-te-si-Jan-di, 136 

JATROPHA 

angusti, 341 

JUNIPERUS, 73 

hynoides Ileer, 80 



KADSURA 

scandens, 336 
kinde-borrachera, 220 

KNEMA 

glomerata, 337 



kuku, 2 1 1 






kurru, 234 
kutrucu, 234, 236 
Labiatae, 336, 340 

LARIX, 73 

Lauraceae, 241, 244, 250, 251 

LAURUS 

nobilis, 25 1 
lee-tlie, 151 

Leguminosae, 92, 336, 340, 341 
lengua de tigre, 185, 190 
le-sa, 233 

LlLIACEAE, 336 

LINDERA 

Benzoin, 251 

LIQUIDAMBAR, 73, 86 
LISIANTHUS 

nigrescens Cham. Sf Schlecht., 

146, 148, 149, 151 
pendulus Mart. , 151 

LoGANIACEAE, 339 
LoRANTHACEAE, 340, 341 

LORANTHUS 

sp., 340, 341 
luhimoco, 267 

LUNANIA 

parviflora Spruce ex lienth. , 1 42 
maicillo, 298 



[xv] 



maize, 1, 2, 6, 33, 34, 36, 40, 



42-44, 47-49, 54, 57, 58, 62, 

182, 297-301, 303-307, 309, 
310, 313 

archeological, 313-329 

prehistoric, 1-24,33-49,52- 
63, 310 

maizillo, 297 
maizmillo, 297 
mats silvestre, 298 
malqficio, 190 

MALLOTUS 

Poilanei, 341 
Malpighiaceae, 122, 124, 127, 

338 

MARTINELLA 

obovata (HBK.) Bur. et A. 

Schum. ex Mart., 347, 35 1, 
352 

MASCAGNIA 

septentrional is, 338 
mata cackorro, 140 
mata negro, 140 

matamata, 233 

MAURITIELLA 

aculeata (HBK.) Burret, 236 

medicinal plants, 134,138,140, 

142, 146, 148, 151, 168, 184, 

186, 188, 189, 197, 211, 333- 
351 

mee-tsee-boo-koo* na, 347 

MELICOPE 

monophylla, 337 

me-re-ia-kee, 14 V 

METAPLEFENTICIRAS 



METASEQUOIA, 94 

ME TH YS TICODENDROX 

Amesianum R.E. Schult., 195, 

218, 222 

MIMOSA 

hostilis, 230, 237 
melon go, 347 
mongojo, 208 
mtskway borrachera, 222 
munchira, 185, 214, 216 
munchira borrachera, 2 16 

viunchiradas, 2 1 6 



pacificum Smith, 90 



mutscuai, 1 85, 2 1 8 



mutscuat borrachera, 220 

Myristicaceae, 337 
Myrsinaceae, S46 

NAUTILOCALYX 

sp., 15 1 

NECTANDRA 

coriacea, 25 1 

n-lobosa, 251 

Rodiei, Rob. Schornb., 243 

ngunsiana, 185, 214 

ngunsiana borrachera, 213 

NEOLITSEA 

Levinei, 25 1 

NEONAUCLEA 

formicaria, 337 

NEPETA 

Cataria, 340 

nyakwana, 230, 237 

OCIMUM 



sanctum, 340 



[ xvi ] 



OCOTEA, 243,251 
palmana, 251 
Rodiei (Rob. Schumb.) Mez, 

243, 244 
venenosa Kosterm. $• Pinkley, 
241, 244-246, 250, 251 

Olacaceae, 341 

o-me'-na, 346 

oo-koo-he, 234 

oo-koo-na, 232, 233 

o-pri-to, 164 

orchid hybrids, generic names 
of, 273-289; parentage of, 
289-296 

o-zia, 148 

PALICOUREA, 164 

parted) 237 
PAULLINIA, 124 

paye, 234 

PENNISETUM 

alopecuroides, 341 

PHASEOLUS 

adenanthus, 340 

PHENAX 

integrifolius JVedd., 187 

PHYLLANTHUS 

lathy roides HBK., 142 

PHYTOCRENE 

Blancoi, 337 
PICEA, 73, 83 
Pinaceae, 73, 75, 79, 80, 83 
pi no/ill os, 148 
PINUS, 73, 82, 83 



sp., 80 



Pipkraceae, 338 

PITYOXYLON, 80, 83 

Podocarpaceae, 79, 82 

poisonous plants, 142, 144, 151, 
152, 154, 156, 158, 184, 346 

POLLIA 

thyrsifolia, 338 

POLYOSMA 

sp., 337 

POLYPREMUM 

procumbens, 339 

POLYRADICION 

Lindenii (Limit.) Garay, 258 

POTOMORPHE 

peltata, 338 

PREMNA 

sp., 341 

PREPINUS, 82 

PROTIUM, 98 
Icicariba, 98 

PSYCHOTRIA, 156, 164 

carthaginensis Jacq. , 158,159 
involucrata Su\, 158, 161 
nudiceps Stand!., 158, 159 
psychotriaefolia (Seem. ) 

Stand/., 158,163,164,230, 
237 

psychotropic plants, 168, 185, 
188-197 

PTEROCARPUS 

indicus, 340 

PTYCHOPETALUM 

olacoides, 341 
qui nde 9 1 85, 214 
qui ride borrachera, 213, 214 

RAMONDIA 



pyreaica Rich., 151 



[ xvii ] 



RAVENSARA 

crassifolia, 251 
resfrio, 189 

KO UREA 

erecta ( H/anco) Merr. , 1 4-0 
glabra HBK., 140, 141 



lifjrulata Bak. , 1 4 



o 



Rubiaceae, 151, 336-338 
Rutaceae, 337 

SABICEA 

Vogelii, 338 

salaman, 185,212 

salamdn borrachera, 212,213 

salamaiiga, 1 85 

salamanga borrac/tera, 212 

salvanje, 185 

salvanje borrachera, 212 

SALVIA 

divinorum, 340 

S VPINDACEAE, 1 24 

SAURAUIA, 265 

c ha pa re n sis Soejarto, 270 
Mexiae Killip ex Soejarto, 208 

multinervis Soejarto, "200 
Schultesiana Soejarto, 267 

Saxifragaceae, 3,37 

s(hisandra(eae, 336 



SCHIZOSTACHYUM 

Lumampao, 330 

SCHOENOBIBLUS 

peruvianus Standi., 142—144 

SEQUOIA, 73, 80, 82-84 



ambigua lleer, 87 
heterophyllus, 80 



Reichenbachii (Genitz) Heer, 
80, 82 

SEQUOIADENDRON, 73 

sha-ka-ker-nd-se, 152 
shka-nin-du, 142 
shka-tee-tso, 1 5 1 
Solanai i ae, 220 

soliman, 152, 154 

SPIGELIA 

pedunculata HBK., 200 

squash, 297 

STELIS 

pendulispica Ames, 26 t 

Styracaceae, 14 t 

STYRAX 

Tessraannii Perk., 1 t4, 145 
Taxaceae, 73 
Taxodiaceae, 73, 75,70, 80, 82, 

83, 94 

TAXODIUM, 73 

teosinte, 1, 4, 9, 12, 10, 34, 37, 
40, 45-49, 61, 02, 297-301, 
303-307, 309, 310, 319 

THEOBROMA, 230 

Tn\ meleaceae, 142 

t'nnje, 190 

TORREYA, 73 
TOLRNEFORTIA 

brevilobata, 337 
volubilis, "6^ 

trago, 193 

TRIPSACUM, 12, 10,34,37, 

47, 48, 62 



dactyloides, 48 
zopilotense, IS 



[a • • 
Will j 



tsuskie borrachera, 506 

ucuna, 534 

una de tigre, 148 

UNONOPSIS 

veneficiorum (Mart. ) R. E. Fr. , 
184-186 

UROSPATHA, 845 

caudata Schott, 346 
sagittaefolia Schotl, 346 
somnolenta 7?. £. Schu/t., 346 

Verbenaceae, 337, 341 
VIGUIERA 

montana, 339 



vinho de yurema, 23 



i 



VIROLA, 559, 530, 535-534, 

536, 237 

calophylla Warb., 229,530 

calophylloidea Markg., 259, 

230, 236 
elongata (Bentk.) IVarb., 229, 

236 



peruviana {J. DC.) Warb.,286 

theiodora (Spr. ex Benth.) 
tVarb., 229, 530, 232, 535, 

537 



VOCHYSIA 

lomatophylla, 339 

VOCHYSIACEAE, 339 



WIDDRINGTONIA 

Reichii (EH.) Heer, 80 

wy-gaw-fio-mee-ko, 347 
wy-soo-dd 9 158 

yage, 191 



yqje, 164,537 
yakee, 537 
yerky 1 5 1 

yoom-da-ka, 347 



yojyo, 237 
yurema, 237 



[ xix ] 



KKKATA 



Page 336, line 6 

for twelve read fourteen 



Page 336, line 8 

delete * the Gramineae by four," 



Page 339, line 6 

for Gramineae read Cyperaceae 



Page 8 K), last line 
replace the , by a 



Page 341, line 1 

delete from the Gramineae' * 



Page 341, line 2 

insert , Gramineae after Frake 512 



Page 311, line 4 



insert , Gramineae after Kajewski "276 



Issued January ^6, 1972 



[xx] 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 8, 1967 Vol. 22, No. 1 



BAT CAVE REVISITED 



BY 



Paul C. Mangelsdorf, Herbert W. Dick 

and Julian Camara-Hernandez* 



In 1948 an expedition sponsored by the Peabody Mu- 
seum of Harvard University and led by Mr. Herbert 
Dick, then a graduate student, uncovered many cobs and 
other parts of maize from the accumulated refuse in a 
once-inhabited rock shelter in New Mexico known as 
Bat Cave. These prehistoric remains were significant in 
several respects: (1) they were the first remains dis- 
covered which showed clearly the nature of primitive 
maize; (2) they provided tangible evidence of a well 
defined evolutionary sequence; (3) they represented the 
first archaeological evidence showing : (A) that primitive 
maize was both a popcorn and a form of pod corn, (B) 
that maize did not originate from teosinte, (C) that much 
of the variation in modern maize is the product of intro- 
gression from teosinte (Mangelsdorf and Smith, 1949). 
Since the 1948 expedition had excavated only one sec- 
tion of the cave, Mr. Dick in 1950 made a second ex- 
pedition which excavated additional sections in the hope 
of finding still older vegetal remains. A preliminary 



* The authors are respectively Fisher Professor of Natural History, 
Harvard University; Associate Professor of Anthropology, Adams 
State College, Alamosa, Colorado; and Fellow of the Consejo Nacional 
de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Argentina, 

en 



examination of the maize specimens of this second ex- 
pedition showed that the earliest cobs were even more 
primitive in some respects than those found in the 11)48 
excavation and the specimens tended to confirm in gen- 
eral the principal conclusions drawn from the detailed 
study which had been made of the 1948 collection. It 
was our intention at that time to make a similar detailed 
study of the 1950 collection and to publish the results at 
an early date. In the meantime, however, the senior 
author participated in a project involving the classifica- 
tion and description of the living races of maize of Mexico 

dlhausen et al. 9 1952) and this made it possible to 
identify precursors of several living races of maize found 
in archaeological excavations in northeastern Mexico by 
MacNeish (MangelsdorfV/ a/., 1956) and in northwestern 
Mexico by Lister (Mangelsdorf and Lister, 1950). Studies 
of still other collections of archaeological maize had shown 



\V 



strikingly the importance of teosinte introgression in the 
evolution of maize (Galinat et al., 1950). In view of 
these developments, it was decided to postpone the final 
studies of the 1950 collection of Hat Cave specimens until 
still other collections which had come to the Botanical 
Museum from various sources could be analyzed. These 
several studies of specimens from sites in Mexico and the 
Lnited States have been completed (Galinat and lluppe, 
1901; Galinat and Gunnerson, 1963; Mangelsdorf et a/., 
1904; Mangelsdorf et al., in press). We can now re- 
examine the two Bat Cave collections with the benelit 
of a familiarity with the living races of maize, a con- 
siderably greater experience in analyzing archaeological 
material, and in the light of significant evidence revealed 




other collections of which one of the most important 

is from sites in the Valley of Tehuacan in Mexico in 
which remains of prehistoric wild corn were found. 



[-M 



m 



The 1950 Excavation 



Since the Bat Cave site and its environs were described 
in detail in the 1949 report as well as in a more recent 
publication (Dick, 1965) there is no need to repeat the 
description here. 

The 1950 expedition comprised three members all from 
the University of Colorado; Herbert W. Dick, who 
directed the excavation, Francis Olson and Allen Olson. 
The excavation was made from August 1 to September G. 

The main purpose of the second expedition was to 
obtain additional prehistoric vegetal material, especially 
of maize, and charcoal from all levels for radiocarbon 
dating. Stone and other artifacts were collected as by- 
products. Except for finding a new type of knotted-fiber 
container these proved to be similar in virtually all re- 
spects to those turned up in the 1948 excavation. 

Because there was no obvious stratigraphy in the cave 
corresponding to cultural phases, the material was re- 
moved in arbitrary strata of 12 inches each: 0-12", 12- 
24", etc. Since three different sections of the cave w T ere 
excavated and since the sterile sand representing Antevs' 
dry level on which the cave deposits rest, occurs at dif- 
ferent levels in different parts of the cave, it might be 
supposed that arbitrary levels in one section would not 
correspond to those in another. In Section IB for ex- 
ample, the sterile sand occurs at 36" while in IC it is 
found at 60". However, the cobs in the 24-36" level of 
IB are similar to those in the 24-36" level of other sec- 
tions. Consequently we have averaged the data on cobs 
and kernels according to the arbitrary levels in which the 
specimens were found. Although this procedure lacks 
refinement it still demonstrates an evolutionary sequence 
of the maize remains from the lower to the upper levels 
of the deposit. 

[3] 



Dating of the Remains 

One of the most important questions to be answered 
is the date of the remains. The radiocarbon determina- 
tions (Libby, 1951; Arnold and Libby, 1950) of samples 
of charcoal and other materials from the several levels 
are set forth in Table I. The data from the two excava- 
tions are fairly consistent for the three uppermost levels 
but differ widely for the two lower levels. There is reason 
to believe that the date of 5005 for the charcoal in the 
48-GO" level is not valid for the associated earliest maize. 



Table I. Radiocarbon dates of charcoal, wood fragments, and cobs 
from the two Bat Cave excavations. 



1918 Excavati 


ions 


19c 


>0 Exeavat 


ions 


Material 


Level 
0-1 2" 


Date 


Material 


Level 


Date 


cobs 


1752 ±250 






wood 


1 2-24" 


1907±250 


Charcoal 


11-15" 


1 6 10 ±200 


wood 


24-36" 


2239 ±250 


i < 


-J 1-36" 


2816±200 


cobs, wood 


86-48" 


2249 ±250 


. ( 


86-48" 


2048 ± 170 


wood 


48-60" 


2862±250 


i i 


48-60" 


5 6 5 ± 2 9 


[extrapo- 
lation] 


60-60" 


3000-^500 


i t 


60-tHi" 


593i±:no 



On the basis of the characteristics of the cobs, especially 
those which represent evidence of teosinte contamina- 
tion, we have concluded that the maize from the 48-G0" 
level of Bat Cave is later than the maize of the Abejas 
phase in the Tehuacan caves and earlier than that oi' the 
Ajalpan phase. This would date it at between 2300 and 
1500 B.C. A similar correlation with the remains of 
maize in Romero's Cave, Tamaulipas, Mexico, excavated 

by Dr. Richard S. MacNeish (in press) makes it con- 
temporary with the Guerrero phase dated by radiocarbon 

at 1800-1400 B.C. These correlations suggest that the 

earliest Bat Cave 



maize 



probably not earlier th 



[4] 



ca 2300 B.C. and may be several centuries later. 

The 1950 Bat Cave collection comprises 81G specimens 

and includes cobs, eroded fragments of cobs, kernels, 

husk systems and husk fragments, peduncles, pieces of 

stalk, and one tassel fragment. We shall consider these 

below in relation to the levels in which they were found 

in the Cave. 

The Cobs 

On the whole the cobs from this collection, numbering 
444 specimens in addition to one fragment bearing ker- 
nels, were quite similar to those of the earlier excavation 
but with one important difference. Some of the cobs from 
the lowest levels were smaller and more primitive than 
any of those previously turned up at this site. Three of 
these are illustrated in Plate III, A. 



Early Maize a Popcorn 

The senior author and his associate, Dr. Walton C. 
Galinat, made an intensive study of one of these speci- 
mens which contained the partial remains of a single 
kernel. We spent several days in dissecting this cob and 
measuring all of its parts. On the basis of these measure- 
ments, Galinat prepared the diagrammatical longitudi- 
nal section illustrated in Fig. 1. We concluded that the 
tiny kernels which this cob must once have borne could 
only have been those of popcorn, a type in which the 
kernels are small and hard and are capable of exploding 
when exposed to heat. This conclusion has been amply 
confirmed by finding among the prehistoric grains several 
actual specimens of popped corn described later. The 
Bat Cave specimens thus provide convincing archaeolo- 
gical evidence in support of one part of the conclusion 
first reached by Sturtevant (1894) and later by Mangels- 
dorf and Reeves (1939) that primitive corn was both a 
popcorn and a pod corn. 

[5] 



? 



Early Maize a Pod Corn] 

Whether the earliest Bat Cave corn was also a pod 
corn depends upon how pod corn is defined. Geneticists 
know that the principal characteristics of pod corn are 
controlled by a single locus, Tu, on chromosome 4. 
Mangelsdorf and Reeves (1930) considered the Tu gene 
to be an ancient wild one still surviving in modern varie- 
ties but they also pointed out that the pod corn of today 
is not the pod corn of wild corn : 

The pod corn found occasionally as a mixture in modern culti- 
vated varieties is certainly not the wild pod corn which the wander- 
ing Indians discovered millenia ago. Modern pod corn is the result 
or superimposing a single wild' gene with perhaps a few closely 
linked modifiers upon a genetic complex which has been tre- 

mendouslv altered by centuries of domestication. 



Intensive research on pod corn and its genetic locus 
by the senior author and his associates over a period of 
almost HO years has shown that Tu locus is a compound 




Fig. 1. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of one of the Bat Cave cobs based 
on measurements of dissected parts. The tiny kernels show that this was a pop- 
corn; the lon£ pedicels on which the kernels are borne and the bracts which 
almost enclose them indicate that it was also a pod corn. 

Drawn by W.C. Gauvat 

[0] 



one having at least two components (Mangelsdorf and 
Galinat, 19G4) and possibly three, one of which is iden- 
tical in its expression with a previously recognized mu- 
tation at this locus designated as "half-tunicate" because 
its effects are about half of those of tunicate (cf. Mangels- 
dorf and Reeves, 1959). We also discovered in the pop- 
corn variety, Baby Golden, a major modifying gene 
which we have called tunicate inhibitor and given the 
symbol, Ti. This gene has its locus on chromosome 6 
and is linked with the gene for endosperm color on that 
chromosome. Combinations of the several components 
of the Tu-tu locus with and without the major modifying 
factor Ti produce a spectrum of phenotypes at one end 
of which all of the kernels are completely enclosed in 
glumes and at the other all of the kernels are completely 
exposed in their upper surfaces but are surrounded in 
their lower surfaces by glumes which are longer than 
those of modern varieties of corn. 

The earliest cobs from the Bat Cave 1950 collection 
are of this latter phenotype as the diagram in Fig. 1 
shows. They have relatively long floral bracts, the lem- 
mas and paleas surrounding the kernels but not com- 
pletely enclosing them. In the 1950 collection we have 
also found one fragment of a cob containing kernels 
which shows exactly this condition* This is illustrated in 
an enlarged photograph in Plate II, C, 1), and in Fig. 2. 

The earliest cobs also have other characteristics of pod 
corn including the slender central stem, the rachis, and 
relatively long secondary stems, the pedicels or rachillae, 
upon which the kernels are borne. 

There has been some skepticism with respect to our 
conclusion that cobs of this type represent pod corn 
(Randolph, 195G; Weatherwax, 1956; Goodman, 19G5). 
Since prehistoric kernels from such cobs, even when 
present, have long since lost their viability there is no 

[7] 



way of determining their genotype, However, since we 
can duplicate the principal characteristics of such speci- 
mens by combining the components of the Tu locus on 
chromosome 4 with the major modifying factor Ti on 
chromosome 6 and with other modifying genes from 
various popcorn varieties and since neither we nor our 
critics have yet found any other way to duplicate these 
characteristics, we shall continue to regard these early 

Fig. °2. Diagrammatic cross section of the early Bat Cave cob 

illustrated in Plate II, C and D. The slender rachis (inner 
circle), the long rachillae (distance between rachis and base of 
kernels), the long glumes (solid line), and the paleas (broken 
line) which almost enclose the kernels, all indicate that this is 
a form of pod corn. 

cobs as representing a form of pod corn and we shall ad- 
here to the conclusions of Sturtevant and of Mangelsdorf 
and Reeves that primitive corn was both a popcorn and 
a pod corn. 




Changes in the Rachis Diameter 

We shall, however, modify the conclusion reached in 
the description of the cobs from the 1948 collection in 
which we attributed changes in the cob/rachis ratio 
largely to replacement of higher alleles of the Tu-tu 
locus by lower alleles including one designated as tu w . 
We have not in our experimental cultures been able 

definitely to establish the existence of such an allele or 
if it exists to distinguish its effects from those of various 



modifying factors whose role, in causing variation in the 
diameter of the rachis and the length of the glumes, was 
postulated in the 1949 paper. Changes in the cob/rachis 
ratio in this material now appear to be more a matter 
of increase in the diameter of the rachis than in the re- 
duction in the length of the glumes. The data in Table 
LI, based on 480 cobs in which the rachis diameter could 
be measured, show that there has been an increase in the 

[8] 



rachis diameter from 7.0 mm. to 8.9 mm. in the period 
represented by the remains of maize in this cave. 

Increase in Variation 

More conspicuous than the increase in the size of the 
rachis is the increase in variation of the cobs. Several of 
the earliest cobs from the 1950 collection resemble the 
prehistoric wild corn from the Tehuacan site but not all 

Table II. Rachis diameters (mm.) and kernel-row-numbers of the 
cobs from successive levels of Bat Cave. 



Level 


Rachis 

Diam.Av. 


Kernel-row-numbers 


Inches 


No. Cobs! g 


10 


12 
28 
35 
55 
54 
1 


14 
12 
22 
16 
13 

2 


16 

2 
4 
5 


18 

3 

2 


Av. 


0-12 
12-24 
24-36 
36-48 
48-60 


8.9 

7.8 

7.9 

7.2 

7.0 


70 

99 

120 

142 

13 


8 
10 
12 

28 

1 


20 
25 

30 

42 

9 


11.4 
11.8 
10.2 

10.9 
10.6 


No. Cobs 


430 


444 


59 


126 


173 


65 


16 


5 





of them are of this type. The majority of them are small 
but there is considerable variation in their other charac- 
teristics, especially in the size and shape of cupules. 
There is some evidence that introgression with teosinte 
had already occurred in some of the cobs from the lowest 
level. Based on the characteristics of the cobs we con- 
clude that the corn from the 48-60" level in Bat Cave, 
as already mentioned, is later than the corn of the Abejas 
phase in the Tehuacan sites and earlier than that of the 
Ajalpan phase. 

The evidence of teosinte contamination is even more 



the specimens from the 



48" level than in 



th 



60 



// 



Photographs of several specimens 



indurated tissues and solitary pistillate spikelets are illus- 
trated in Plate I, C and E. 

The cobs in this and subsequent levels are so hetero- 

[9 



geneous in their characteristics that it is impossible to 
classify all of them with respect to race. However, some 
of the cobs clearly resemble those of the race Chapalote. 
A series of these from the lower to the higher levels is 
shown in Plate III, B. 

Another type of cob thicker and more nearly cylin- 
drical in shape than those resembling Chapalote is illus- 
trated in Plate I Y. These may be related to the Mexican 
race, Blando de Sonora, described by Wellhausen et al. 9 
1952. Some of the kernels with colorless pericarp and 
floury endosperm illustrated in Plate I II, C may also be 
related to this race. 

Changes in Kernel-row Number 

An increase in the diameter of the rachis provides a 
larger surface on which kernels can be borne and this 
results in either a hisrher kernel-row number or in larger 



kernels or in both. Table 11 shows that there has been 
a change in the kernel-row number from the lower levels 
to the higher. The modal number in the lowest level is 
10 and in all higher levels, 12. The average row number 
of the cobs from successive levels, the lowest to the 
upper, is 10. G, 10.9, 10.2, 11.8, and 11.4. The increase 
in kernel-row number has, however, been relatively 
smaller than the increase in kernel size discussed below. 



M> 



The Kernels 
Increase in Size 

There are 299 well preserved kernels in this collection, 
a much lamer number than found in the 1948 material. 



^ 



The data in Table III show that there is a substantial 
increase in kernel length and width from the lower levels 
to the higher accompanied, however, by a decrease in 
thickness. The kernels from the lowest level are almost 
isodiametrical in their dimensions; kernels from upper 
levels tend to be longer, wider, and flatter. 

[10] 



I — \ 



I I 



Table III. Dimensions of kernels of different pericarp and aleurone colors from successive levels of Bat Cave. 



Cave 




Number of Kernels and their Length, Width and Thickness in mm. 




Level 


Brown 


Red 


Variegated 


Colorless 


Aleurone Color 


Averages 


Inches 


No. L 


W T 


No. L W T 


No. L W T 


No. L W T 


No. L W T 


No. L W T 


0-12 


7 7.5 


7.3 5.5 


1 7.4 11.3 6.9 




10 8.2 8.6 5.4 




1 i 

18 7.9 8.2 5.5 


12-24 


44 6.9 


6.8 5.4 


10 7.6 7.1 5.3 


4 8.0 7.8 5.3 


74 7.8 8.1 5.6 


2 8.4 8.5 6.0 


134 7.5 7.6 5.5 


24-36 


16 6.7 


6.7 5.5 






3 8.0 7.8 5.6 




19 6.9 6.9 5.5 


36-48 


29*6.9 


6.7 5.7 


26 7.3 6.8 5.3 


9 7.2 7.3 5.5 


37 7.1 6.7 5.5 




101 7.1 6.8 5.6 


48-60 


10 6.8 


6.7 5.8 


1 7.7 6.5 5.3 








11 6.9 6.7 5.8 



* 



Ten additional brown kernels employed in a popping experiment are not included in these measurements. 



Changes in Pericarp Color 

The majority of the kernels are so well preserved that 
it is possible to classify them with respect to pericarp 
color. Of the 293 kernels so classified: 116 are brown, 
:>8 red, 13 variegated, 2 with colored aleurone, and 124 
with colorless pericarp and aleurone. 

The kernels with brown pericarp are more frequent in 
the lower levels than in the higher and they are smaller 
on the average than the kernels with red or colorless 
pericarp. The fact that the kernels from the lower levels 
of Bat Cave are predominantly brown suggests that this 
is the primitive or "wild" color. Also most of the early 
prehistoric corn in South America has brown pericarp 
color as do the kernels of corn's relative, teosinte and 
Tripsacum. 

Pericarp color in maize is the product of the inter- 
action of genes at two, in some cases three, different loci. 
Hrown pericarp results when the P factor on chromosome 
1 interacts with one of the several alleles at the A locus 
on chromosome 3: A hi 9 aP\ and a r Since the kernels 
from the lower levels are predominantly brown and since 
the a x allele is not common in maize, it seems probable 
that the genotype of the early kernels is A bl A bi PP. The 
red kernels probably represent mutations to A x perhaps 
resulting from the introgression of teosinte which is 
known to have mutagenic effects (Mangelsdorf, 1958). 

Variegated Pericarp. Thirteen of the 299 kernels had 
variegated pericarp. This variegation is the product of 
a mutation system which has been intensively studied 
Brink and his associates and which involves the inter- 
action of genes at the P locus on chromosome 1 with a 




genetic factor designated as "modulator* * which may 
occupy various positions on chromosome 1 or on other 
chromosomes. The fact that nine of the 13 variegated 

[12] 



kernels occur in the 36-48" level indicates that a muta- 
tion system similar to that studied by Brink was already 
in existence at an early date and the fact that the varie- 
gated kernels are larger than either the brown or red 
kernels suggests that the modulator system may have 
caused or been accompanied by other mutations involv- 
ing increases in size. 

Colorless Pericarp. The kernels with colorless pericarp 
are generally larger than those with colored pericarp and 
are predominantly floury. They may belong to the race, 
Blando de Sonora, described by Wellhausen ct al., 1952. 
We have already suggested that certain cobs may belong 
to this race. 



Popped Kernels 

In addition to the 293 kernels classified with respect 
to color there were six popped or partially popped ker- 
nels in which the color could not be determined with 
certainty but which appeared to have brown pericarp. 
One of these is illustrated in Plate III, D. We were able 
by a simple experiment to demonstrate that the early 
Bat Cave kernels were capable of popping. To increase 
their moisture content, we placed ten of the smaller 

brown kernels from the 86-48" level in a petri dish with 
a piece of moist paper towel for 48 hours. When dropped 
into hot oil all of these popped in varying degrees. One 
of these, a popped-prehistoric kernel, is illustrated in 
Plate III, 1) where it is compared with a prehistoric- 
popped kernel from the same level. 



Peduncles 

Twenty-one specimens of peduncles or ' 'shanks** were 
found in this collection. Those from the lower levels 
were usually more slender than those from the higher 
levels as is shown by the specimens illustrated in Plate 

[13] 



V. Part of the increase in size may be the result of clus- 
ters of small ears being replaced by single large ears as 
discussed below. 

Husks 

The most important modification of a conclusion based 
on the 1948 collections, which resulted from a study of 
the 1950 specimens, is concerned with the nature of the 
husks. There were three husk systems and 47 husk frag- 
ments. In the 1948 collection we found in Stratum II 
a long husk which shows no evidence of ever bavins been 



shaped around an ear. Furthermore its peduncle as well 
as the peduncle of the ear which it once bore are both 
quite slender. A cob which might have been enclosed in 
this husk system was illustrated in Plate XXY11 of the 
1949 report. Because this cob is much shorter than the 
husks, we reached what we then considered an "almost 
inescapable conclusion" that husks at this stage in the 
evolution of maize did not tightly enclose the ear but 
instead were involucres of leaf sheaths, not greatly modi- 
lied, surrounding the base of the pistillate inflorescence 
but not completely enclosing it. "Inescapable conclu- 
sions'* sometimes turn out, when additional evidence is 
forthcoming, to require modification. The additional 
evidence from the 1950 collections suggests that a long 
husk of this type enclosed not a single ear but a cluster 

of ears. This evidence comes from two specimens: one 
husk system (Plate V, B) in which the husks are only 
slightly longer than the 1949 cob which is illustrated in 
Plate VI, B and the other a piece of stalk with an at- 
tached slender peduncle bearing at the base the scar of 
a branch (Plate VI, D). Considering all of these speci- 
mens together we now reach the conclusion that the long 
husk probably enclosed a cluster of at least two ears, each 
of which had its own husks which were only slightly 
longer than the ears. The situation is illustrated in the 

[14] 



diagram in Fig. 3. The specimens on 
which it is based are illustrated in 
Plate VI. 

That this conclusion may be more 
nearly correct than the earlier one is 
supported by the fact that in our ge- 
netically reconstructed wild corn pro- 
duced by combining components of 
the tunicate locus with genes from 
various popcorn varieties, we have en- 
countered exactly this situation : clus- 
ters of small ears each enclosed in short 
husks and the entire cluster enclosed 
in long husks which flare open at ma- 
turity. 



Fig. 3. Diagrammatic longitudinal section based on 
specimens illustrated in Plate VI showing how the 
long husks may have enclosed a cluster of short ears, 
each enclosed in its own husks. Solid lines represent 
actual specimens; broken lines indicate what may 
have been the additional parts. 



\ 






1 

v 



r\ 



\ 



\ 



v 
W 



r 



\ 
\ 



\ 



\ 



\ 
\ 



Tassels 

Only one specimen of tassel, a fragment of a central 
spike, was found and this occurred in the uppermost 
level. Its spikelets have relatively long glumes. Since 
the specimens of tassels found in the 1948 excavation, 
although described, have not been illustrated, we are 



[15] 



ncluding a photograph of them in Plate VII. Th 
pikelets on most of the fragments are smaller and mor 



than those of the majority of m 



b 



Conclusions 

1. The earliest maize from the second (1950) Bat Cave 
expedition is more primitive than any of the specimens 
turned up in the first (1948) expedition. 

'2. Maize from the lower levels of the cave is definitely 
a popcorn. There are several popped kernels among the 
prehistoric remains and other prehistoric kernels proved 
to be still capable of popping after having their moisture 
content raised. 



.**. The earliest maize is probably a form of pod corn. 
At least it has relatively long soft glumes partly enclos- 
ing the kernels which are borne on long rachillac. These 
are characteristics of pod corn. 



4. The maize from the lowest levels has brown peri- 
carp color and is related to the Mexican race, Chapalote. 
Brown pericarp color is presumably the primitive or 
"wild" color. Brown pericarp is less frequent than red 
and colorless pericarp combined in the upper levels of 
the cave. 



5. The occurrence of variegated pericarp in the 36-48" 
level shows that a mutation system similar to that involv- 
ing the "modulator" factor was in existence at an early 
stage in corn's domestication. 



0. Clear-cut evidence of the introgression of teosinte 



Tr'wsacum or b 



th 



d there is some evidence of introgression in th 



earlier 48-60" level. 



[16] 



7. There is an increase in diameter of the rachis of the 
cobs from the lower to the upper levels; this is accom- 



panied by an increase in kernel-row number and in the 



length and width of the kernels. There is a slight de- 
crease in kernel thickness. 



8. The remains of the husks and other parts of the 
husk systems suggest that the long husks found in one 
of the levels of the 1948 excavations enclosed not a single 
ear but a cluster of ears each enclosed in its own husk. 



9. Comparisons with the prehistoric maize of other 
sites suggest that the earliest maize from Hat Cave should 
be dated at not earlier than 2800 B.C. and perhaps 
several centuries later. 



[ 17 



UTKRATIRK I TIKI) 



Antevs, E. (ieochronoloffv of the de<dacial and neothermal aires. 
Jour. Geol. 61 : 195-230. 



Arnold, J. K. and W. F. Libby. 1950. Radiocarbon dates. Univ. 
Chicago Inst. Nuclear Studies. 



Dick, II. \\ . 1965. Rat Cave, Catron County, New Mexico. School 

of American Research Monograph No. L J7. Santa Fe. 

Emerson, R. A., (I. W, Beadle, and A. C. Fraser. 1935. A summary 
of linkage studies in maize. Cornell Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Memoir 

180. 



Galinat, W. C. and J. H. Gunnerson. 1963, Spread of eight-rowed 
maize from the prehistoric Southwest. Rot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard 
I'niv. 20: 1 17-160. 



— , P. C. Mangelsdorf, and L. Rierson. 1956, Estimates of teosinte 
introgression in archaeological maize. Rot. Mus. Leaf). Harvard 
I'niv. 17 : 101-124. 



and Ruppe. 1961. Further archaeological evidence on the effects 
of teosinte introgression in the evolution of modern maize. Rot. 

Mus. Leaf]. Harvard I'niv. 19: 163-181. 



Goodman, M. M. 1965. The history and origin of maize. North 

Carolina Agri. Exp. Sta. Tech. Hull. No. 170. 
Libby, W. F. 1951. Radiocarbon dates II. Science 114: 291-296. 

- 7 

Mangelsdorf, P. C. 1958. The mutagenic effect of hybridizing maize 
and teosinte. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol, 23: 409— 

421. 



- and W. C. Galinat. I964-. The tunicate locus in maize dissected 
anil reconstructed. Proe. Nat. Acad. Sci. ."> 1 : 147-150. 



and R. II. Lister. 1956. Archaeological evidence on the evolu- 
tion of maize in northwestern Mexico. Rot. Mus. Leaf). Harvard 
Univ. 17: 151-178. 



-, R. S. MacNeish, and W. C. Galinat. 1956. Archaeological evi- 
dence on the diffusion and evolution of maize in northeastern Mex- 
ico. Rot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 17: 125—148, 

[ 18] 



, R. S. MacNeish, and VY. C. Galinat. 1964. Domestication of 
. Science 145: 538-545. 



, R. S. MacNeish, and W. C. Galinat. 1967. Prehistoric maize, 

teosinte, and Tripsacum from Tamaulipas, Mexico. Rot. Mus. 
LeaH. Harvard Univ. (in press). 

and R. G. Reeves. 1939. The origin of Indian corn and its 

relatives. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 574. 

and It. G. Reeves. 1959. The origin of corn III. Modern races, 



the product of teosinte introgression. Bot. Mus. LeaH. Harvard 
Univ. 18: 389-41 I. 

— ■ and C. K Smith. 1919. New archaeological evidence on evolu- 
tion of maize. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 13: 213-247. 



Sturtevant, K. L. 1894. Notes on maize. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club c 2 1 : 
319-3 43, 503-523. 



[19] 



Plate I. A and B. Two views of a segment of a 



// 



disarticulating tripsacoid" rob from the 24-36" 
level. The pedicellate member of each pair of spike- 
lets is staminate. The kernels have brown pericarp 
and are almost completely enclosed by the glumes. 
With respect to the pistillate spikelets, this is a 
four-rowed ear. C. Tripsacoid cob from the 86—48 
level showing highly indurated tissues of the rachis. 
Approximately half of the pistillate spikelets are 
solitary. 1). This specimen appears to be the pis- 
tillate basal part of a tassel branch or an un- 
branched tassel. E. A tripsacoid cob from the 86- 
48" level showing highly indurated tissues of the 
rachis, a whorled phyllotaxy, and a solitary spike- 
let. F, Fragment of a cob from the 36—48" level 
showing the almost square shaped cupules which 
are similar to those of the prehistoric wild corn 
from Tehuaean Valley. All photos 



3. 



[ 20 ] 



Pi. An: I 






■PMPRRP Hi 













... 








Plate II. A. A well preserved cob from the 48- 
60" level showing relatively long, soft lower and 
upper glumes and one cupule with a spikelet re- 
moved illustrating prominent cupule rims. This 
cob appears to be that of a form of pod corn. II. 
Fragment of an eroded cob from the 36-48" level 
showing a tendency for adjacent cupules to fuse 
and their rims to disappear. C and 1). Two views 
of a fragment of an ear from the »>t)-4 8 r/ level show- 
ing ( 1 ) the slender rachis and the long lower 
glumes and paleas and (2) the small round kernels 
with brown pericarp partially surrounded by the 
glumes and other floral bracts. All photos 3.7. 



[ 22 ] 



Plate II 













A 




B 



MMM 



■rflm***r*roi 



r - 



■ 



.... 












l IP 



c 



D 



Pi ati: III. A. Three cobs from the lowest level of 
the 1 ( J~>() excavation. The diagrammatic longitudi- 
nal section illustrated in Fig. 1 is based on one of 

these. B. An evolutionary series of Chapalote- type 

cobs, the shortest from the48— 60" level, the longest 
from the 12-24" level. C. Typical kernels with 
brown (left), red (center), and colorless pericarp. 
I). A prehistoric popped kernel from the 86-48" 
level compared with a popped kernel produced by 
exposing a prehistoric kernel from the same level 
to heat. All photos actual size. 



[ 24 ] 



Plate III 












■ 






r*> 



V 



I 



*>-. 



*n 



W> 









i 



:v s 



*4*# 






*» 



' 



** 



B 
























C 




Plate IV 













« 



Wn 










J* 




v 




» ' 









i 



^fe*^ 





4M& 



,v- "* 




SfO.;*** 




>' 





ft 







Typical cobs related to the Mexican race, Hlaiulo de Sonora from the 23— 3ti 

levels. 



// 



[ 26 ] 








*9 



* 



v 



1 















* 










^^•lip^ 















A 




> 



- 



A. Specimens of peduncles arranged in sequence from the lower to the upper levels. The vertical rows represent the 
36-48", 24-36", 12-24", 0-12" levels respectviely. B. Remains of husk svstem from the 36-48" level. Actual size. 



Plate VI. A. A long husk from level 11 of the 

194-8 excavation. B. A Chapalote-type cob from 



^.n 



the 1948 collection. (\ A husk from the 36-48 
level which might have enclosed an ear of about 
the size represented by the cob in H. 1). Piece of 
a stalk from the 36— 48 r/ level with peduncle of an 

ear arising from it. At its base the peduncle has the 

scar of a branch. K. A slender peduncle of about 
the diameter of the branch once attached to the 
base of 1). These specimens are combined in a 

diagrammatic longitudinal section in Fi<r. 3. Three 

fourths actual size. 



[ 8« ] 



Plate VI 













■ 









■ 












I 



. ■ 






..-»:■ 



jfc? 






f 





















r 



- 



S*TO 






0$J 



; T# 



; ■ ■ 



■ 



F -.v^atK 






B 







n 












N> 



CO 



^ 



an 



0) 



*N| 



00 



CD 



o 









I 



ft-: 






I 











E 






Plate VI L 




Fragments of tassel branches from the 1948 excavations. The vertical rows from 
left to right represent levels VI, V, IV, IV, IV respectively. 



[ 31 ] 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, Dkcbmhrr 27, 1967 Vol. 22, No. 2 



PREHISTORIC MAIZE, TEOSINTE, AND 
TRIPSACUM FROM TAMAULIPAS, MEXICO 

15 Y 

Paul C. Mangelsdorf, Richard S. MacNeish, 

and Walton C. Galinat * 



In an earlier paper (Mangelsdorf et al. 9 1956) we de- 
scribed the prehistoric maize uncovered in archaeological 
excavations conducted by MacNeish in 1949 in La Perra 
Cave in the state of Tamaulipas, northeastern Mexico. 
The earliest of this maize, dated at 2500 B.C. by radio- 
carbon determinations of associated wood and leaves, 
was identified as a precursor of a still existing Mexican 
race Nal-Tel, one of the four Mexican races described 
by Wellhausen et al. (1952) as Ancient Indigenous. We 
did not regard this maize, although primitive in some 
characteristics, as wild corn. 

While excavating La Perra Cave, which is located in 



eastern Tamaulipas, MacNeish also made some prelimi- 
nary soundings in several caves in southwestern Tamau- 
lipas which persuaded him that still earlier corn, perhaps 
even prehistoric wild corn, might be found in the lower 
levels of the refuse of these caves. Accordingly in 1954, 



* The authors are respectively : Fisher Professor of Natural History, 
Harvard University; Head Department of Archaeology, University 
of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Associate Professor, Waltham 
Field Station, University of Massachusetts, formerly Research Asso- 
ciate, Bussey Institution, Harvard University. 

[ 33 ] 



with the assistance of David Kelley, then a graduate 
student in anthropology at Harvard, he excavated two 
caves, Romero's and Yalenzuela's, and sampled the refuse 
in a third, Ojo de Agua, all located in Infiernillo Can- 
yon. The earliest corn from these caves proved disap- 
pointingly to be not earlier than the La Perra Cave but 
slightly later, 2300-1800 B.C. It was, however, of a race 
different from the La Perra corn and showed some re- 
semblance to the early prehistoric corn of But Cave in 
New Mexico described by Mangelsdorf and Smith 
(1949). We now recognize both as being related to the 
prehistoric wild corn of Tehuacan Valley described by 

Mangelsdorf et cii (1904). 

Of even greater interest was the discovery in the Infier- 
nillo Canyon caves of several specimens each of teosinte, 
the closest relative of maize, and of Tripsacum, a more 
distant relative. The prehistoric remains of these three 
species of the American Maydeae are described below 7 , 
following a brief description of the site and its environs. 



Description of the Site 

The Canyon Infiernillo is located in southwest Tam- 
aulipas in the northern part of the municipio Ocampo. 
In terms of our previous investigations in Sierra de 
Tamaulipas(MacNeish, 1958; Mangelsdorf^/ a/., 195(5), 
this region is about 7«> miles to the southwest and has a 
very different environment. Immediately southwest of 
the dry Sierra de Tamaulipas at an elevation never over 
1500 feet is the wide flat meandering Guayalejo River 
Valley with a tropical vegetation extending up from the 
south. West and southwest of this valley lie the first 

* 

north-south oriented ridges oi' the Sierra Madre moun- 
tains. The lower slopes of these mountains are covered 
with a tropical, deciduous forest; from 2500 to 4000 feet 
the vegetation forms a cloud forest; and at higher eleva- 

[34] 



tions a pine-oak forest occurs. Further to the west the 
valley becomes narrow and the ridges even higher. 
Covered with pine-oak forests at their summits, these 
ridges cast "rain shadows" on the bottoms of the valleys 
which consequently are quite dry and have a xerophytic 
vegetation in which maguey, cactus, mesquite, and 
chaparral predominate. Canyon Infiernillo, to which we 
were guided in 1954 by Don Ignacio Guerra, is one of 
those dry canyons containing three caves named 
Romero's, Valenzuela's, and Ojo de Agua. These are 
all situated high above the canyon floor at the base of 
limestone cliffs and may have been the mouths of former 
underground rivers that have since become dry and in 
part filled in. These relatively deep tunnel-like caves are 
extremely dry and in prehistoric times would have been 
ideal places for living. Because of their dryness much of 
the refuse and remains of the ancient inhabitants has 
been almost perfectly preserved. 

The Stratigraphy 

All three caves had stratified occupational layers which 
not only revealed a long cultural sequence but also 
yielded many botanical specimens which could be 
brought to bear upon the problems of early agriculture 

and subsistence activities. 

Radiocarbon determinations and correlations of arti- 
facts with those of other sites permit us to recognize six 
more or less distinct cultural phases beginning at about 
2350 B.C. The characteristics of these phases have been 
described in detail elsewhere (MacNeish, 1958). Here 
we need be concerned only with their approximate ages. 
In sequence beginning with the most recent they are: 

San Antonio A.D. 1450-1800 

San Lorenzo A.D. 1050-1450 

Palmillas A.D. 200-800 

[35] 



Mesa de Guaje 1200-400 B.C 

Guerra 1850-1200 B.C 

Flaeco 2350-1850 B.C 



The Specimens 

r rhe maize specimens from only one of the three caves, 
Romero's, have been analyzed in detail but an early cob 
from the Flaeco phase of Valenzuela's Cave has been 
included in the analysis as well as several specimens of 
teosinte and Tripsacum. 

The collection of prehistoric remains of maize and its 
relatives described here comprises 12,014 specimens and 
includes virtually all parts of the plant: pieces of stalk, 
leaves, husks, cobs and cob fragments, tassel and tassel 
branches. There are a large number of quids of chewed 
stalks, young ears, and tassels as well as several speci- 
mens of teosinte and Tripsacum. A brief description of 
the remains in the several categories follows. 



Classification of the Cobs 



All of the intact cobs as well as those almost intact 
were classified on the basis of their resemblance to the 
existing races of corn in Mexico described by Wellhausen 
ct al. (1952). Nine different races or subraces were iden- 
tified among the prehistoric cobs. Their relative fre- 
quency in terms of percentage of total cobs in the several 
levels of the cave is shown in Table I. 



The Chapalote Complex 

The great majority of the cobs, about two thirds of 
the total, were identified as belonging to the race Chap- 
alote or its precursors or derivatives. This race is found 
today only in western Mexico (Wellhausen ct aL 9 1952) 
but it was once much more widespread. The prehistoric 
wild corn uncovered in caves in the valley of Tehuacan 

[30] 



Table I. Classification of the Prehistoric Specimens of M 



and Its Relatives 



Associated with Six Cultural Phases in Caves in Southwestern Tamaulipas. 







Cultural Phase 


Classification 

of 
Specimens 


San Antonio 
A.D. 1450-1800 


San Lorenzo 
A.D. 1050-1450 


o 
o 

00 

1 

Id 

0- < 


Mesa de Gauje 
1200-400 B.C. 


Guerra 

1850-1200 B.C. 


Flacco 
2350-1850 B.C. 


Total Specimens 


Cobs 
















Pre-Chapalote 








2 


14 


1 


17 


Early Chapalote 


5 


2 


24 


56 


46 




133 


Tripsacoid Chapalote 


299 


356 


457 


307 


127 




1546 


Chapalote 


108 


122 


116 


25 






371 


Breve de Padilla 


350 


279 


188 


19 






836 


Palomero Jalisciense 


7 


15 


11 


4 






37 


Harinoso de Ocho 


19 


10 


3 








32 


Nal-Tel 


23 


17 










40 


Tuxpeno 




3 










3 


Unidentified Fragments 


229 


71 


49 


53 


55 




457 


Other Maize Parts 
















Stalks 


13 


12 


5 


11 


6 




47 


Leaves 


4 


2 


2 




1 




9 


Husks 


45 


60 


70 


42 


2 




219 


Tassels 


6869 


904 


307 


15 


4 




8099 


Quids 


44 


39 


63 


5 






151 


Maize Relatives 
















Teosinte 






1 


7 


1 




9 


Maize-teosinte Hybrids 








1 


2 




3 


Tripsacum 




1 


1 




2 


1 


5 


Total Specimens 


12,014 



[87] 



in southern Mexico is related to Chapalote (Mangelsdorf 
et aL, 19(54) as is also the earliest prehistoric corn from 
Swallow Cave in Sonora, Mexico (Mangelsdorf and 
Lister, 1956) and from Bat Cave in New Mexico 
(Mangelsdorf ct al. 9 1967). Ears, kernels, and cobs of 
this race have also been identified among the prehistoric 
specimens from archaeological sites in Arizona, Utah, 
Colorado, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas. This race, 
originating from its wild progenitor in southern Mexico, 
spread through western and northwestern Mexico and 
from there throughout the region now the southwestern 
United States. It has not been found, however, either 
archaeologically or among existing races, in lowland 
eastern Mexico. There the earliest corn is Nal-Tel, a 
race closely related to Chapalote and perhaps stemming 
from it. Nal-Tel is found today in Yucatan and Cam- 
peche and sporadically in Oaxaca and Guerrero. One 
collection of this race has been made in San Luis Potosi 
(WellhauseneJ a/., 1952). The chief difference between 
these two ancient races is in pericarp color, Chapalote 
having brown and Nal-Tel orange pericarp. Other dif- 
ferences include shape of the ear and hairiness of the 
cupules. Although the differences are not consistent, 
Chapalote tends to have a longer, more tapering, cob 
than Nal-Tel and to have cupules which are less hairy. 

The fact that Chapalote is the predominating race in 
the prehistoric cobs from Canyon Infiernillo caves while 
the early corn from La Perra Cave is exclusively Nal-Tel 
(Mangelsdorf et al. 9 1956) suggests that races of culti- 
vated maize, like other artifacts, are characteristic oi* the 
cultures to which they belong. The people who occupied 
La Perra Cave were evidently related to lowland agri- 
culturists of eastern Mexico while those of the Canyon 
Infiernillo caves had their affinities westward and north- 
ward (MacNeish, 1958). It would also appear that races 

[38] 



of maize, although clearly related to each other such as 
Chapalote and Nal-Tel, had early become adapted to 
different highland and lowland environments and tended 
to spread within these "ecological zones." This in turn 
suggests that perhaps it was only at the latest prehistoric- 
levels that the culture and agriculture of the highlands 
and lowlands merged to become the single "culture 
area" Meso- America. 

Pre- Chapalote. (Plate VIII, A). Following the no- 
menclature employed in our earlier descriptions of pre- 
historic maize (Mangelsdorf et al., 195G; Mangelsdorf 
and Lister, 1956) we have called the earliest corn un- 
covered in Romero's Cave Pre-Chapalote. The cobs of 
this subrace have the same tapering shape as those of the 
modern Chapalote but are much smaller. None are as 
small, however, as the prehistoric wild corn from Tehua- 
can Valley. We assume that even the earliest corn from 
the Tamaulipas caves is cultivated corn. 

Pre-Chapalote makes its first appearance (a single cob) 
in the Flacco phase of Valenzuela's Cave dated at 2350- 
1850 B.C. It appears last in the Mesa de Guaje phase 
dated at 1200-400 B.C. The total number of cobs of 
this subrace is 17. 

Early Chapalote. (Plate VIII, A). The cobs of this 
subrace, comprising 133 specimens, are intermediate in 
size between those of Pre-Chapalote and modern Chap- 
alote. In other respects the cobs are quite similar to 
those of modern Chapalote. Cobs of this subrace ap- 
peared first in the Guerra phase dated at 1850-1200 B.C. 
and last in the San Lorenzo phase, A. 13. 1050-1450. 

Tripsacoid Chapalote. (Plate XI, A). Slightly more 
than half of all identified cobs, 1546 specimens, were 
assigned to a subrace which we called Tripsacoid Chap- 
alote. The cobs are quite similar to those of Chapalote 
but differ in the induration of their tissues, especially of 

[39] 



the rachises and glumes which 



ted 



Cobs of this nice are probably the product of hybridiza- 
tion of Chapalote with corn's closest relative, teosinte. 
Specimens of teosinte and corn-teosinte hybrids were 
found iimoner the prehistoric vegetal remains. 



The Tripsacoid Chapalote appeared first in the Guerra 
phase but at a later level than the Early Chapalote. A 
single cob occurred in level 5 and the subrace was well 
established (120 cobs) in level 4b which represents the 
end of the Guerra phase probably about 1500-1200 B.C. 
This corn became the predominating type in the two 
succeeding phases, 1200 B.C.-A.D. 800, and thereafter 
was gradually replaced by other races, persisting, how- 
ever, as a prominent component in the complex until 
A.D. 1800, after the arrival of the Spaniards. 

Chapalote. (Plate VIII, B). Cobs of a type quite 
similar to those of modern Chapalote appeared first in 
the Mesade Guaje phase, 1200-400 B.C. They increased 
in frequency in the Palmillas phase (14.5 percent of all 
cobs) and continued to maintain approximately this fre- 
quency until the end of the series. A total of 361 cobs 
were assigned to this category. 

Wellhausen et al. (1952) collected modern Chapalote 
in only two states in Mexico, Sinaloa and Sonora, but 
as pointed out above it must at one time have been 
much more widespread. 

Breve de Padilla. (Plate X, A). Making its first ap- 
pearance only slightly later than modern Chapalote — 
level 4a of the Mesa de Guaje phase — -is a race called 

Breve de Padilla by Wellhausen (unpublished). 

The origin of this race is not definitely known. Its 
cobs are longer and thicker than those of Chapalote and 
it may be the product of hybridization between Chapa- 
lote and Ilarinoso de Ocho, a race originally from South 
America and still found sporadically in western Mexico. 

[40] 



Not altogether consistent with this suggestion is the fact 
that Breve de Padilla, the suspected hybrid, appears be- 
fore Harinoso de Ocho, the putative parent. However, 
the former occurs first in the upper level of the Mesa de 
Guaje phase, the latter in the lower level of Palmillas, 
the succeeding phase. Also, the Harinoso de Ocho had 
so low a frequency at all levels that its absence in the 
Mesa de Guaje phase may represent nothing more than 

a sampling error. 

Whatever its origin, Breve de Padilla appears to have 
been a productive race which rapidly replaced other 
races. Starting with an initial frequency of 4.6 percent, 
the cobs of this race increased in succeeding phases to 
23.5, 35.1, and 43.1 percent. In the San Antonio phase, 
A.D. 1450-1800, this was the predominating race. Alto- 
gether 836 cobs were assigned to this race. 

Cobs identified as those of Breve de Padilla had pre- 
viously been found among the later prehistoric specimens 
uncovered in the Sierra de Tamaulipas caves (Mangels- 
dorf et al. , 1956; MacNeish, 1958) but their frequency 
was low. This may be regarded as a further bit of evi- 
dence that this race is western in origin and that La 
Perra and Canyon Infiernillo caves represent different 
peoples with respect to their agriculture. 



Minor Races 

A total of 112 cobs were found which could not be 
assigned to any of the races described above but all 
seemed to be related to others of the existing races de- 
scribed by Wellhausen et al. (1952). The following races 
were identified among the cobs. 

Harinoso de Ocho. (Plate XI, B). As already men- 
tioned Harinoso de Ocho first appeared in the lower level 
of the Palmillas phase, A.D. 200-850. At no time, how- 
ever, did it attain a high frequency and the total num- 

[41] 



ber of cobs assigned to this race was only 32, about one 
percent of the total identified cobs. 

Although not common in Mexico today, Harinoso is 
important as one of the progenitors of a number of races. 
According to Wellhausen et al. (1952) Harinoso dc Ocho 
has given rise directly to the widely grown race Tablon- 
cillo and indirectly to Jala, Bolita, Celaya, and Conico 
Norteno and is also related to Olotillo of southwestern 
Mexico. Evidence presented by Galinat and Gunnerson 
(1963) indicates that Harinoso de Ocho is the progenitor 
of the eight-rowed flour corn of the upper Mississippi 
and the eight-rowed flint corn of New England. This in 
turn makes it one of the ancestors of Corn Belt dent 
corn of the United States. It may also be, as suggested 
above, one of the progenitors of Breve de Padilla which 
became the predominating race of Romero's Cave be- 
tween A.l). 14501800. 



Nal-Tcl. (Plate X, B). A total of 40 cobs were as- 
signed to the race Nal-Tel which is the eastern low- 
land counterpart of Chapalote and was the predominating 
race in La Perra Cave in eastern Tamaulipas. Its low 
frequency in Infiernillo Canyon compared to the high 
frequency of Chapalote indicates that there was little 
interchange of cultivated corn varieties between the 
peoples represented by these two caves which are physi- 
cally only about 75 miles apart. 

Palomcro Jalisciense. (Plate IX, B). A total of 37 

cobs were assigned to this race which is described by 
Wellhausen (7 al. (11)52) as a subrace of Palomero Tolu- 
queno, one of the Ancient Indigenous races of Mexico. 
The subrace differs from the ancestral race in having 
thicker cobs and a higher kernel-row number. Among 
the living races of Mexico, it has been collected only in 
southern Jalisco at elevations of 2600 to '2700 meters. 
In comparison to Palomero Toluqueno, it is slightly 

[ -*-> ] 



more vigorous, has a stronger root system, and is later 
in maturity. Also the ears are somewhat less tapering 
than those of Palomero Toluqueno. Wellhausen ct al. 
(1952) suggested that these modifications had probably 
been brought about through introgression of Oloton, a 
race common in the high altitudes of the state of Chiapas, 
Mexico, and in Guatemala. 

Tuxpeno. (Plate XI, A). Three unusually large cobs 
occurred which showed some resemblance to Tuxpeno, 
the predominating modern race of the lowlands of east- 
ern Mexico. There is some question, however, whether 
these cobs are actually of this race. A combination of 
higher than average hybrid vigor and better than average 
growing conditions could have produced unusually large 
cobs of the race Breve de Padilla, w T hich could be con- 
fused with cobs of Tuxpeno. On the other hand, it is 
possible that Tuxpeno, which occurs in this part of 
Tamaulipas today, reached there in prehistoric times and 
it is to avoid overlooking this possibility that we include 
here a snecific mention of these three larere cobs. 



Other Parts of the Corn Plant 



A total of 8525 specimens of other parts of the corn 
plant were identified. These included stalks, leaves, 
husks, tassels, and chewed quids. 

Stalks 

Like the cobs, the pieces of stalks, 47 in number, 
showed an evolutionary sequence with respect to size, 
the earlier ones being on the average more slender than 
the later. 



Leaves 

Nine leaves or leaf fragments among the specimens 
add no significant information since they are similar to 
the leaves of modern corn. 

[43] 



Husks 

Like the cobs and stalks, the husks, a total of 211) 
pieces, showed an evolutionary sequence with respect to 
size, the earlier ones being on the average shorter than 
the later ones. 

Tassels 

An amazingly large number of tassels, tassel branches, 
and tassel fragments, 8099 specimens in all, were found 
among the vegetal remains. There is great variation 
among these; the later ones are indistinguishable from 



those of modern races of corn; some of the earlier ones 
have smaller spikelets. Although some students of maize 
(Anderson and Cutler, 1942) consider the tassel to be an 
especially useful organ in classifying maize, we have not 
yet been able to discover any clear-cut, diagnostic char- 
acters which will allow us to assign the tassels, as we have 
the cobs, to recognized races. We are, however, preserv- 
ing all the specimens of tassels in the hope that some 
future student of prehistoric maize may see in them 
more than we have so far been able to discern. 

The most puzzling aspects of the tassels is why they 
should have been preserved at all. Perhaps young tassels 
still containing their anthers served as a source of food. 
The ancient peoples who occupied this cave seem to have 
led a precarious existence with respect to their food sup- 
ply and they chewed, presumably for the sugar they 
contained, a great variety of plants and plant parts. One 
of the specimens among the quids is undoubtedly that 
of the chewed young tassel since partly chewed staminate 
glumes can be identified in it. Also, we now know that 
corn pollen is rich not only in a number of amino acids 
but also in vitamins and minerals. Anthers filled with 
ripe pollen may be veritable little vitamin-mineral cap- 
sules and may have supplied some much needed elements 
to the diet. However, the majority of the prehistoric 

[44] 



tassel branches are those of matured tassels that have 
shed their pollen and lost their anthers. We can think of 
no use to which they might have been put for food or any 
other purpose except possibly a primitive ceremonial one. 



Chewed Quids 

The refuse contained a large number of chewed quids 
some of which, a total of 151, were identified as those of 
corn. Quids composed of chewed tassels have already 
been mentioned. Two other types were recognized : 
those produced by chewing young ears enclosed in husks 
and those resulting from chewing stalks. Both were 
probably chewed more for their sweetness than for the 
few calories which they added to a none-too-adequate 
diet. After identifying two partly chewed young ears in 
the refuse of La Perra Cave some years ago, we chewed 
their modern counterparts and found them sweet. 

The majority of quids were those of chewed stalks. 
Chewing evidently began at one end of a piece of stalk 
and continued until the entire piece was thoroughly 
masticated and only the fiber remained. The process 
must sometimes have been interrupted for a few of the 
quids had unchewed sections of the stalk still attached 
producing a quid with a stem, a structure somewhat 
reminiscent of a modern lollypop (Plate XIII, D). 

The chewing of both stalks and young ears must have 
been at the expense of subsequent grain production. 
Perhaps in this stage of culture being provident had not 
yet become a virtue and was seldom practiced. 



Teosinte 

We identified nine specimens of teosinte and three of 
maize-teosinte hybrids. The earliest specimen, a frag- 
ment of fruit case, occurred in feces in one of the lower 
levels of the Guerra phase dated at 1850-1200 B.C. 

[ 45 



Other specimens occurred in the two succeeding phases. 
Several of these comprised clusters of spikes (Plate XII, 

A). 

The specimens which we identified as maize-teosinte 
hybrids differed from those of teosinte in having thicker 
stalks and non-fragile rachises. The one illustrated in 



Plate XII, B is of particular interest in resembling spikes 
which we have produced by introducing one of the tuni- 
cate alleles into teosinte thereby replacing the highly in- 
durated lower glume of teosinte with the herbaceous 
glume of tunicate maize. W^hen we first encountered 
this specimen we wondered briefly whether it might rep- 
resent the ancestral form of corn postulated by the late 
R. A. Emerson: a soft-shelled form of teosinte.* lie- 
cause these specimens were borne on thicker stalks than 
the clusters of teosinte we concluded that they were 
maize-teosinte hybrids. 

We cannot be certain whether the specimens identified 
as maize-teosinte hybrids are Fi hybrids or segregates 
appearing in subsequent generations. They resemble Fi 
hybrids in their non-shattering rachises but differ from 
typical modern Fi hybrids in having single rather than 
paired spikelets. 

The presence in the caves of remains of teosinte is 
puzzling. The seeds of teosinte are nutritious, having a 



higher protein content than those of corn (Melhus ct al., 
1953), but are enclosed in hard bony shells from which 
they are difficult to remove. Although this can be done 
by popping if the moisture content of the seeds is right 
(Beadle, 193 ( J) there is no evidence from the prehistoric 
remains that teosinte was used in this way. On the con- 
trary Dr. E. O. Callen, who has made a study of the 
feces from these caves, has found a number of teosinte 
fruits with their hard bony shells still undamaged or un- 



* In conversation. 



[40] 



changed. Since it is unlikely that the consumption of 
intact teosinte fruits provides any satisfaction or nutri- 
tional benefit to the consumer, there must have been 
some other reason for their use. Hernandez states that 
teosinte seeds are a cure for dysentery (Wilkes, 1967) 
and although it is doubtful that this is true, the inhabi- 
tants of the Infiernillo Canyon caves may well have be- 
lieved it to be. Or did the Indians of this region perhaps 
practice the custom of planting teosinte in their corn 
fields to improve the corn as did those of western Mexico 
(Lumholz, 1902) or those of some parts of Guatemala 
(Melhus and Chamberlain, 1953)? The prehistoric speci- 
mens do not distinguish between the two possibilities. 
The finding of several fruits in a leather container in a 
pit extending down from a Palmillas floor suggests only 
that the fruits were regarded as having some value. The 
occurrence of maize-teosinte hybrids suggests that teo- 
sinte grew in or near the corn fields in prehistoric times 
although it is unknown in Tamaulipas today. 

The early occurrence in this site of teosinte and of 
tripsacoid maize, presumably the product of teosinte in- 
trogression, may raise questions regarding the hypothesis 
of Mangelsdorf and Reeves (1989, 1959) that teosinte is 
a hybrid of maize and Tripsacum which may have oc- 
curred after the cultivation of maize began. There is still 
earlier evidence of tripsacoid maize, although not of 
either teosinte or Tripsacum, in the prehistoric cobs from 
caves in the valley of Tehuacan. In these sites, the trip- 
sacoid corn first appeared as a single cob in the Abejas 
phase, 3400-2300 B.C., and had become well established 
in the later Ajalpan phase, 1500-900 B.C. The earliest 
corn in both Tehuacan Valley and in Tamaulipas is non- 
tripsacoid corn. The tripsacoid corn appears soon after- 
ward and in Romero's Cave at the same level as teosinte. 
These several findings, although consistent with the hy- 

[47] 



pothesis of the hybrid origin of teosinte, by no means 
prove its validity. 



Tkipsacum 



Slightly less puzzling, since it still grows in Tamauli- 
pas, is the presence of Tripsacum in the refuse of the 
Canyon Infiernillo caves. Seeds of Tripsacum, like those 
of teosinte, are nutritious but are difficult to remove from 
the bony shells in which they are enclosed. They are not 
especially promising as a source of food yet must some- 
times have been gathered for this purpose. (Jilmore 
(1931 ) found fruits of Tripsacum in the prehistoric refuse 
of a cave in the O/arks. 

Five specimens of Tripsacum were found in the refuse 
and these included both staminate and pistillate spikelets 
(Plate XIII, B). We were not able to make positive 
identification with respect to species although one of the 
spikes seemed to bear a somewhat closer resemblance to 

T. zopilotense — which has not been collected in Tamau- 
lipas — than to T. dactyloides which occurs there now. 



Stmmaky 



1. The vegetal remains uncovered in the refuse in 
three once inhabited caves in southwestern Tamaulipas, 
Mexico, are of particular interest in containing specimens 
of all three of the American Maydeae: maize, teosinte, 
and 'Tripsacum as well as hybrids of maize and teosinte. 

2. The collection, comprising 12,014 specimens, in- 
cluded virtually all parts of the maize plant: stalks, 
leaves, husks, cobs, and tassels as well as chewed quids 
of various parts. 

3. The corn is predominantly of the race Chapalote; 
about two thirds of all of the identified cobs are assigned 
to this race and its several subraces. 

[48 1 



4. The predominance of Chapalote and its subraces 
suggests that the prehistoric corn and the agriculture 



med d 



ern Mexico where 



d 



tion began was identified as a progenitor of the still 
existing Mexican race Chapalote. 



5. Beginning at about 18.50-1450 B.C. there is evi- 
dence of the introgression of teosinte into corn. More 
than half of the identified cobs were classified as Tripsa- 
coid Chapalote. 



6. Several specimens of maize-teosinte hybrids furnish 
direct evidence of the hybridization of maize and teosinte. 



7. A new race, Breve de Padilla, which became the 
predominating race in the last phase, A.l). 14,)0-1800, 
may be a hybrid of Chapalote with the western Mexico 
race Harinoso de Ocho. 



[«>] 



LITKRA IT RK CITKI) 



Anderson, ft. and II. C. Cutler. 1942. Races of Zea Mays: I. Their 
recognition and classification. Ann. Mo. Bot. (iard. 29: 69-88. 



Beadle, (J. W. 1939. Teosinte and the origin of maize. Jour. Ilered 
30: 245-247. 



Galinat, W. C. and J. H. Gunnerson. 1963. Spread of eight-rowed 

maize from the prehistoric Southwest. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard 

Univ. 20: 1 17-160. 



Gilmore, M. R. 1931. Vegetal remains of the Ozark Blurt-Dweller 
culture. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters 14: 83-102, 



Lumholtz, C. 1902. Unknown Mexico. Charles Scribner's Sons, New 
York. 



MacNeish, Richard S. 1958. Preliminary archaeological investigations 
in the Sierra de Tamaulipas, Mexico. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 
48 : Part 6. 



Mangelsdorf, P. C, II. W, Dick and J. Camara- Hernandez. 1967. 
Bat Cave revisited. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 22: 1-32. 



-and R. II. Lister. 1936. Archaeological evidence on the evolu- 
tion of maize in northwestern Mexico. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard 
Univ. 17: 131-178. 



, It. S. MacNeish and \V. (\ Galinat. 1956. Archaeological evi- 
dence on the diffusion and evolution of maize in northeastern Mex- 
ico. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 17: 125—150. 



, R. S. MacNeish and \V. C. Galinat. 1961. Domestication of 

corn. Science 143: 538-545. 



— and It. G. Reeves. 1939. The origin of Indian corn and its 
relatives. Texas Agr. Exp, Sta. Bull. 374. 



— and It. CI. Reeves. 1959. The origin of corn. III. Modern races, 
the product of teosinte introgression. Bot. Mus. LeaH. Harvard 
Univ. 18 : 389-41 1. 

[ 50 ] 



and C. E. Smith. 1949. New archaeological evidence on evolu- 



tion of maize. Bot. Mus. Leaf!. Harvard Univ. 13: 213-247. 



Melhus, I. E., F. Aguirre and N. S. Scrimshaw. 1953. Observations 
on the nutritive value of teosinte. Science 117: 34-35. 



— and I. M. Chamberlain. 19.53. A preliminary study of teosinte 
in its region of origin. Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci. 28: 139-164. 



Wellhausen, E. J., L. M. Roberts and E. Hernandez X. in collabo- 
ration with P. C. Mancrelsdorf. 1952. Races of maize in Mexico. 
Bussey Institution, Harvard Univ. 



Wilkes, H. G. 1967. Teosinte: the closest relative of maize. Bussey 
Institution, Harvard Univ. 



[51 



Platk \ III. A. The two cobs (left) of Pre-Chapalote ; 
the lower from Guerra phase, 1850-1200 B.C., the 
upper from the Mesa de Guaje phase, 1200-400 B.C. 
The remaining four cobs are Karlv Chanalote. Both 
types are characterized by relatively soft glumes and 
rachis tissues. Actual size. B. Typical cobs of the race 
Chapalote from the Palmillas phase, A.l). 200-800. 
The stick inserted in one of the cobs may have served 
as a handle for holding the ear near fire to toast the 
kernels. Actual size. 



[ 52 ] 



Plate VIII 





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Plate IX. A. Cobs of Tripsacoid Chapalote from 

the upper level of the (iuerra phase, ca. 1 t-00-1 200 



B.C. This maize, the predominating type in the 
cave, has indurated tissues of the rachises and lower 
glumes. When the other floral parts are lost the 
cobs with their stiff, often curved, lower glumes 
resemble a coarse file or rasp. The specimen at 
left still bears three kernels which have the brown 
pericarp color and round shape characteristic of 
Chapalote. Actual size. Ii. Cobs of Palomero Jalis- 
ciense, a popcorn race related to Palomero Tolu- 
queno, one of the tour Ancient Indigenous races of 
Mexico. Palomero Jalisciense is known today only 
in the state of Jalisco. Actual size. 



[ 34 1 



Plate IX 










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Platr XI. A. These cobs, of which there were 
only three, appeared in the San Lorenzo phase, 
A.I). 10.50-1 1-50. Thev are similar in their charac- 
teristics to those of the race Tuxpeno, one of the 
most productive of the modern races of Mexico, but 
thev may be unusuallv lar<je cobs of Breve de 
Padilla, the predominating race in the upper levels 

of the refuse. Actual size. B. These cobs mav be of 
the race Harinoso de Ocho which is postulated to 
be the putative ancestor of Breve de Padilla, illus- 
trated in Plate \, and of several other productive 
races. 



[ :>s ] 



Plate XI 




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A. A cluster of teosinte spikes with a number of the fruits exposed to view. These, like the fruits 
of modern Mexican teosinte, are triangular in shape and in this respect differ from the fruits of 
Guatemalan teosinte which are trapzoidal. B. A spike identified as that of a maize-teosinte hy- 
brid. This differs from spikes of teosinte in having a solid rachis and herbaceous, instead of in- 
durated, lower glumes. Note that the stalk on which it is borne is thicker than the stalks of teosinte 
shown in Plate XII, A. Actual size. 



r 



K 






Plate XIII. A. Tassel branches from the San An- 
tonio phase, A.l). 1450-1800. All specimens are 
similar in their botanical characteristics to the 
staminate tassel branches of modern corn where 
the spikelets occur in pairs, one member sessile, 

the other pedicelled. Actual size. R. The pistillate 

part of a prehistoric spike of Tripsacum and the 
staminate part of another spike. Why Tripsacum 
should have been collected and preserved in the 
cave is puzzling. Actual size. ('. Some of the cobs of 
Tripsacoid Chapalote are fragile like the spikes of 
teosinte and break up into disc-like segments ( left ) 
which resemble closely the segments of some de- 
rivatives of modern maize-teosinte hybrids (right). 
These prehistoric specimens furnish indirect evi- 
dence of the h vbridizstion of maize and teosinte. 
Direct evidence of such hybridization is provided 
bv the maize-teosinte hybrids illustrated in Plate 
XII, R. I). Quids, the product of chewing tassels 
Ueft, center) and a stalk (right). Young ears en- 
closed in husks were also sometimes chewed. 
Actual size. 



[ 62 ] 



Plate XIII 



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9 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 22, 1968 Vol, 22, No. 3 



CATALOGUE OF INFRARED SPECTRA 

OF FOSSIL RESINS (AMBERS) 
I NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA 1 

BY 

Jean H. Langenheim and Curt W. Beck 2 



Fossil resins are of interest to the mineralogist, palaeon- 
tologist, botanist, entomologist, chemist, and archaeolo- 
gist, but, because their study straddles these many fields, 
they have not received comprehensive attention from 
any quarter. During the 19th Century, mineralogists 
described and named well over 100 fossil resins, mostly 
of European origin, and botanists and entomologists 
studied olant and insect inclusions, primarily in Baltic 



1 Grateful acknowledgment is made for funds to support this study 
from National Science Foundation grants GB-1312 and GB-2397 
at Harvard University and GS-739 and GP-4729 at Vassar College. 
Also financial assistance was provided to Professor Langenheim by 
the Radcliffe Institute for Independent Study and to both Professors 
Langenheim and Beck by the American Philosophical Society for the 
Advancement of Useful Knowledge. Mr. Gil Hillman, Mr. Anthony 
Placeres and Mr. Sumner Slavin assisted with preparation of the spec- 
tra and Mrs. Patty Shepard prepared the illustrations. Appreciation 
is likewise expressed to Professor E. S. Barghoorn for his continued 
interest and support of the project as well as his criticism of the manu- 
script and to Mr. James Doyle for his helpful discussions of Creta- 
ceous stratigraphy and floras. 

2 Jean H. Langenheim, formerly a Research Associate in the Bo- 
tanical Museum, is now at the Division of Natural Sciences, University 
of California at Santa Cruz. Curt W. Beck is at the Department of 
Chemistry, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York. 

[03] 



amber. In the New World there are no fewer resins, 
but, since they have been studied by biologists rather 
than mineralogists, few have been given names. 



Even now, the only reasonably inclusive listing of fossil 
resin occurrences, restricted largely to the named varie- 
ties, are to be found in the back pages of standard works 
on mineralogy or mineral chemistry, such as those of 
Dana (1895), Hintze (1038) or Doelter and Leitmeier 
(1930). Their description by standard mineralogical 
procedures, which are ill suited to complex, largely 
non-crystalline, organic materials, does not provide an 
acceptable basis for classification. It is indeed no ex- 
aggeration to say that fossil resins have not yet been 
ordered into a classification system. Mineralogical com- 
pendia make broad distinctions between "families" con- 
taining or lacking succinic acid, sulfur or nitrogen, but 
these superficial criteria do not reflect any meaningful 
relationship in establishing a natural classification system. 

Paclt (1953) has suggested a system ordered by geologic 
age and botanical origin. The former criteria, unfortu- 
nately, have had to be based on meager and scattered 
published evidence. Most often, the botanical origin, 
which is based on associated fossil plant remains, is in- 
dicated without supporting evidence because of lack of 
available data in the literature. Botanical source unques- 
tionably is the most significant basis for classification of 
fossil resins, since they are plant products the chemical 
composition of which is genetically controlled (Mirov, 

1961 ; 1907). Also study of the botanical source of fossil 
resin through geologic time provides an opportunity to 

observe evidence of biochemical evolution within the 
populations that produce the resin. Kesins from some 
populations appear to have a relatively stable compo- 
sition through millions of years, whereas others have 
changed considerably. The determination of the origin 

[ 00 1 



of resin, however, is a difficult task because of the changes 
which resins undergo in the process of fossilization. 
Resins polymerize with age, presumably by a free-radical 
mechanism. As a result, the fossil product is a macro- 
molecule of high molecular weight, largely insoluble, and 
not amenable to most of the usual methods of attack 
used in elucidating the structures of organic compounds. 

We have found infrared spectroscopy a useful technique 
in botanical investigations of both fossil and modern resins 
at Harvard University and in the classification of fossil 
resins for archaeological ends at Vassar College. We now 
hope to use our diverse interests and competences to 
undertake the large task of a systematic study of fossil 
resins. The goal is to classify them first relatively, i.e. 
sorting them into groups of resins which share the same 
gross composition as revealed by their infrared spectra. 
We eventually expect to determine their botanical source 
by comparison of the infrared spectra of recent and fossil 
resins corroborated wherever possible by paleobotanical 
data. Some results of this collaboration have been pub- 
lished previously (Langenheim and Beck, 19G5). 

Infrared spectroscopy is useful particularly in com- 
paring fossil and recent resins because polymerization 
preserves all simple functional groups of the recent resin 
with the exception of carbon-carbon double bonds. Also 
skeletal frequencies are damped but not usually extin- 
guished completely. Thus, a similarity remains between 
the spectra of recent and fossil resins in that certain ab- 
sorption peaks can be matched one-to-one, although the 
intensity of these peaks is usually much weaker in the 
fossil resins than it is in the recent ones, especially at 
longer wave lengths. 

Over the past few years, we have prepared infrared 
spectra of well over a thousand fossil resins and several 
hundred present-day resins. It now seems appropriate 

[07] 



to make this large body of evidence accessible to inter- 
ested research workers in the form of a catalogue which 
will be divided into three sections: I, North and South 
American; II, Kurope; III, .Asia and Africa. A fourth 



bablv will oresent spectra of 



plants. 



have attempted to procure as many soecime 



possible of each kind of fossil resin from the leading col- 
lections of the New and Old World. Samples used in 
this section were obtained from the Harvard University 
Botanical Museum Palcobotanical Collections: Harvard 
University Mineralogical Collections; Harvard Univer- 
sity Entomological Collections; Museum of Paleontolo- 
gy, University of California at Berkeley, United States 



National Museum (Smithsonian), New York Museum 
of Natural History and Museum fur Naturkunde, East 
Berlin. 

Since infrared spectroscopy is not )^et a method widely 
used by botanists and mineralogists, we will here include 
a brief discussion of the major absorption bands of the 
fossil resins and their significance. Infrared radiation is 
absorbed by matter to provide the necessary energy for 
the motion of atoms within a molecule. These motions 
may be relatively simple (stretching and bending of in- 
dividual bonds between two atoms) or they may be very 
complex (involving larger portions of the carbon skeleton 
of the molecule). The simpler motions predominantly 
lead to absorption at low wave lengths (2.5-8 (jl ; 4000 



to 1250 cm 1 ). Uecause they are essentially independent 



of the rest of the molecule, their absorption bands are 
remarkably stable in position and are readily assigned to 
specific functional groups. Thus, the first absorption band 
of fossil resins at 2.9 /x (3500 cm -1 ) is due to the stretch- 
ing of hydrogen-oxygen bonds; the bending motion of 
these bonds causes absorption at about G. 1 ^ (1050 cm -1 ). 

[68] 



Some of the hydroxl groups responsible for these two 
bands without doubt pre-exist in the resin, but others 
are the result of atmospheric water vapor taken up by 
the sample in the course of its preparation (Beck et a/., 
1966). The group of more or less well resolved absorp- 
tions near 3.4 /jl (2950 cm* 1 ) is due to the stretching of 
carbon-hydrogen bonds; the bending motions of these 
same bonds lead to absorption near 6.8 /jl (1470 cnr 1 ) and 

7.25 fi (1380 cm- 1 ). 

The remaining prominent band in the lower region is 

due to the stretching of carbon-oxygen double bonds. 
This so called carbonyl band usually occurs near 5.8 /x 
(1700 cm -1 ) in the fossil resins. All these absorption 
bands are almost uniformly typical of all fossil resins and, 
therefore, of limited diagnostic value. Only the position, 
intensity, and resolution of the carbonyl band show sig- 
nificant variation. 

The upper region of the spectra (8 to 16 /*; 1250 to 
625 cm -1 ) is more difficult to interpret in terms of chemi- 
cal structure, but it is nevertheless more useful than the 
lower region because it shows greater variety. Of prime 
importance is the region between 8 and 10 fx (1250 and 
1000 cm -1 ), where absorption is due to carbon-oxygen 
single bonds. Since these vibrations are substantially 
influenced by the carbon skeleton of the entire molecule, 
it is rarely possible to assign these bands to very specific 
structural features. However, as a kind of fingerprint of 
a fossil resin, this upper region is the one that we most 
often rely upon to classify resins into groups which are 
not only recognizable as having similar basic structures, 
but which we can increasingly relate to recent resins, and 
thus obtain important evidence about the botanical origin 

of the fossil resins. 

Absorption bands above 10 /x (1000 cm' 1 ) are, in gener- 
al, still more difficult to assign and must therefore be used 

[09] 



mainly as fingerprints. Hut there are a few major excep- 
tions. Bending motions of hydrogen atoms attached to 
unsaturated carbon atoms lead to absorptions which are 
highly characteristic and which yield useful structural 
information. In the fossil resins, the most important of 
these is the sharp band near 11.3 fi (885 cm -1 ) which can 
be attributed to out-of-plane bending of the two hydro- 
gen atoms of a terminal methylene group. The presence 
of this band in the spectrum of a fossil resin is of particu- 
lar interest, because it is also a feature of a number of 
resin acids which have been isolated from recent resins 
(agathic acid, copalic acid, catavic acid, eperuic acid). 
The absence of this band in fossil resin spectra, however, 
must be interpreted with caution, since terminal metln i 
groups are easily oxidized. The lack of an 11.3 /jl (885 
cm -1 ) band in the spectrum of a fossil resin may, there- 
fore, indicate either that the resin never had a terminal 
methylene group or that this group has been oxidized as a 
result of long exposure. The hydrogen atoms attached to 
aromatic rings also cause easily recognizable absorptions 
in the upper regions. They are rare in fossil resins, but, 
when they occur, they permit immediate assignment of 
the resin to the few botanical sources characterized by 
aromatic components. 

All of the spectra were made from amber in the solid 
state which was dispersed in potassium bromide pellets 
(Langenheim and Heck, 1965; Beck et aL, 1965). The 
Perkin Elmers Model 137 spectrophotometer was used 
for the samples reported in this section. 



The spectra curves reproduced here can, of course, be 
only a small fraction of those now recorded in both of 
our laboratories. To make the selection, we have com- 
pared all the spectra of each species or variety in order 
to choose a few spectra which best represent the group as 
a whole. In addition, we have included spectra of special 

70 ] 



interest since they show features not shared by all mem- 
bers of the group* 

We should like to warn researchers not to put too 

much weight on a single infrared spectrum of any fossil 
resin. Resins are mixtures of appreciable heterogeneity, 
and the small samples used to prepare spectra may well 
differ significantly in composition, even when taken from 
a single specimen. It is always advisable to run two or 
more spectra of a given specimen and to rely only on 
those features which are common to all or, at least, to 
most spectra. 

Relatively few of the North and South American am- 
bers have been characterized chemically or physically and 
assigned mineralogical species names, as numerous of the 
European ambers have been. In some instances, how- 
ever, paleobotanical remains of considerable significance 
in determining the botanical source of the amber have 
been reported in New World deposits. For this reason, 
botanical information regarding the kinds of trees that 
might have produced the amber, in addition to the man- 
ner in which the resin may have been produced, have 
received particular attention in this presentation. Con- 
fusion regarding stratigraphic data and, hence age as- 
signments of the amber-bearing strata, are discussed 
where relevant to an understanding of the rapid evolu- 
tionary changes which occurred in some of the possible 
resin-producing components of Cretaceous floras in par- 
ticular. Spectra of modern resins will be compared with 
those of ambers in some cases. Only general comments 
regarding the origin of the amber will be made, however, 
since this paper is designed primarily as a catalogue. 
Detailed discussion of botanical origin will be presented 
elsewhere. 



[71] 



Cretaceous Amber 



Amber from Cretaceous beds have been reported in 
considerable amounts from the Kuk River drainage of 
the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain, from the beach of 
Cedar Lake, Manitoba, Canada, and from numerous 
occurrences along the Atlantic Coastal Plain from Massa- 
chusetts to South Carolina. Also a small amount has 
been recorded from Baja, California, Mexico. Spectra 
have been made from specimens from the above locali- 
ties. Although amber has also been noted to occur in 
Cretaceous rocks from Hardin County, Tennessee (Ross, 
1956), Ellsworth County, Kansas (Schoewe, 11)42), the 
Black Hills of South Dakota, Eagle Pass, Texas, Mt. 
Diablo, California, as well as other localities, samples of 
these have not been available as yet for analysis. 

The Alaskan amber will be discussed first because its 
stratigraphic relations and associated plant fossils have 
been investigated more intensively than for other Cre- 
taceous ambers. These studies provide background for 
interpretation of the botanic source in terms of the in- 



frared spectra. 



j. 



Hash an Amber 



Amber is widespread in Upper Cretaceous coal and 
carbonaceous shales along the Kuk River drainage (Kuk, 
Ketik and Kaolak Rivers) of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal 
Plain (Langenheim, Smiley, and Gray, 1960; Smiley, 
1966). Reworked amber occurs also ubiquitously in 
Pleistocene beds and along recent stream deposits in 
this region. Several lines of evidence indicate that these 



Cretaceous amber-bearing beds are of non-marine origin, 
and age determinations rest entirely on the abundant 
plant megafossils and microfossils. The older Kuk flora, 
characterized by ferns of varied kinds and a mixture of 
primitive and modern conifers, is considered Cenomanian 

[ 72 ] 



(earliest stage in the Upper Cretaceous) in age (Smiley, 
19G6); only a few amber samples were found in these 
strata. More amber occurred in the Ketik beds to which 
Smiley assigns a Turonian age. These beds contain the 
earliest record of abundant and varied angiosperms and 
the dominant Ketik conifers are modern types referable 
to extant genera in such families asTaxodiaceae^^z/o/a, 
Sequoiadcndron, ? Taxodium and Juniperus), Pinaceae 
(Pinus, Picca and ? Larix) and Taxaceae (Ccphalotaxus 
and ? Torreya). Most of the amber occurred in associa- 
tion with the Kaolak flora which Smiley designates as 
Senonian in age. It is characterized by taxodiaceous 
conifers (Sequoia, Scquoiadendron and ? Taxodium) and 
? Torreya in the Taxaceae. Gray (Langenheim, et al., 
19G0) noted an abundance of conifer pollen in this flora 
with taxodiaceous pollen the dominant type. Pine and 
spruce pollen also occurred frequently, but the rarity of 
megafossils suggests that the latter conifers may have 
inhabited slopes or uplands some distance from lowland 
depositional sites. Langenheim et al. (19G0) concluded 
that the source of this amber was taxodiaceous trees 
growing close to lakes, coastal swamps or other water 
bodies from the evidence : l) the amber has always been 
found with abundant taxodiaceous remains, 2) the pina- 
ceous pollen was derived from upland sources. 

This Alaskan amber has been described neither chemi- 
cally nor physically and has not been given a mineral- 
ogical name. Some of the material is transparent, al- 
though much is opaque. The clear amber varies in color 
from light yellow to red, deep golden brown and almost 
black. The opaque material varied commonly from a 
beige to molasses color. Most of the transparent amber 
is crack-free and has a conchoidal to subconchoidal frac- 
ture, whereas the opaque amber is commonly granular. 
Langenheim et al. (I960) indicate that most clear pieces 

[73] 



do not contain inclusions, although small bubbles and/or 
small plant fragments are abundant in some specimens. 
Most unbroken specimens are small (one-eighth inch in 
diameter) teardrop masses, subcylindrical pieces up to 
one-fourth inch in diameter or irregularly rnammillary 
blobs. The teardrops may have dropped from the trunk 
or branches, and the cylinders may have broken from 
hardened runnel of resin attached to the surface of a 
branch. All of these shapes tend to demonstrate resin 
hardened in the atmosphere. Several occurrences of am- 
ber in coal with woody texture, however, suggest that at 
least part of the amber was derived from resin within 
the trunk of tree and thus not in a position to trap in- 
sects or wind-blown plant debris. 

Twenty-two spectra were run of Alaskan amber rep- 
resenting samples varying in color and other physical 
properties. Nineteen specimens were from the Kaolak 
River and three from the Ketik River localities; none 
were available from the Kuk River. Most of these col- 
lections were from placer deposits, although at two locali- 
ties the amber was collected in situ. All of the material 
is from the collections of the Museum of Paleontology, 
University of California at Berkeley. Three patterns 
appeared among the 22 spectra run (Plates XIV and 
XV). The most typical pattern is Type II (H-332); 15 
spectra are of this kind. The spectra typical of amber from 
the Raritan formation from Kreischerville, Staten Is- 
land, New York, is similar to Alaska Type II in the 
carbon skeleton. Type I (H-313) is a more generalized 
pattern (i.e., more flattened with less pronounced bands) 
and is represented by three spectra. Type III (11-318 
on Plate XV) occurs only in two spectra but is quite 
similar in the carbon skeleton to that of the amber from 
the Upper Patapsco Formation from Washington, D.C. 
There are, however, differences between the pairs Alaska 

[74] 



II and Kreischerville, on the one hand, and Alaska III 
and Washington, D. C. , on the other, in the intensity and 
resolution of the carbonyl band. The 11.3 fi (855 cm -1 ) 
band is most pronounced in Alaska II and Washington, 
D.C. (H 173 on Plate XV). 

Spectra of resin from various living members of the 
Taxodiaceae and Pinaceae are being run presently to see 
if correlation can be established with these Alaskan types. 
The Taxodiaceae are of particular interest, since associ- 
ated plant remains with the Alaskan amber point to this 
possible origin. As yet, however, relation of this amber 
to either members of the Pinaceae or Taxodiaceae is not 
evident, but further investigation of the modern resins 
is necessary. 

Atlantic Coastal Plain Amber 

Amber for spectral analysis has been obtained from 
twelve localities alonsr the Atlantic Coastal Plain from 



Massachusetts to South Carolina (Fig. 1). In most cases, 
the amber was reported to occur in Potomac, llaritan 
or M ago thy beds. Controversy has existed regarding the 
age of these stratigraphic units (Spangler and Peterson, 
1950; Dorf, 1952; Steeves, 1959). Recent palynological 
studies, however, have essentially confirmed age assign- 
ments previously based on plant megafossils (Berry, 

1909, 1910, 1911a,b,c, 1914, 1916 et al. ; Dorf, 1952). 

The Potomac Group is the basal unit of the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain Cretaceous sequence in Maryland, Dela- 
ware and Virginia. It typically underlies the llaritan 
and Magothy Formations in Maryland and Delaware 
but is absent to the north in New York, New •Jersey and 
Massachusetts, where the llaritan is the oldest Cretaceous 
unit. The Potomac Group appears to be entirely Lower 
Cretaceous in age (Brenner, 1963), with the Patuxent 
Formation being Barremian, the Arundel Formation 

[75] 



CRETACEOUS 



I Alaska (Arctic Coastal Plain) 22 

II Manitoba, Canada (Cedar Lake) 11 

III Atlantic Coastal Plain 

1. Kreischerville, New York 7 

2. Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts 1 

3. Harrisonville, New Jersey 2 

4. Cliffwood, New Jersey 1 

5. Bordentown, New Jersey 3 

6. Roebling, New Jersey 11 

7. Kincora, New Jersey S 

8. Pemberton, New Jersey 2 

9. St. Georges, Delaware 1 

10. Washington, D.C 2 

11. Magothy River, Maryland 5 

12. Charleston, South Carolina [} 

IV Baja California, Mexico 1 



EARLY TERTIARY 



V Seattle, Washington 5 

VI Dominican Republic 7 

VII Chiapas, Mexico 30 

VIII Para, Brazil 2 



UNKNOWN AGE 



IX Guayaquil, Ecuador 3 

X Giron, Colombia 6 

XI Medellin, Colombia 6 

XII Canon Diablo, Arizona 1 

XIII Greenland 2 

XIV Montana 9 



Number of spectra for all localities are indicated. 



[70] 




Figure I. Location of samples of amber in North and South America 
from which infrared spectra were run (see explanation on opposite 



pa 



ge). 



77 



being Aptian, and the Patapsco Formation being re- 
stricted to the Albian Stage. 

The Raritan Formation, on the other hand, is Upper 
Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Turonian Stages), according to 
the palynological investigations of Groot, Penny and 

Groot (1961) and Kimyai (1966). The overlying Mago- 
thy Formation is Turonian-Coniacian (Early Senonian) 
in age (Groot, Penny and Groot, 19G1 and Stover, 1964). 
It is impossible to sort out the stratigraphic difficulties 
for most of the Atlantic Coastal Plain amber deposits 
from the available literature. Jt is most important to be 
aware of the age differences of these deposits, however, 
and possible confusion regarding them. The age is par- 
ticularly significant in regard to change in floras and 
seemingly rapid evolution of coniferous elements that 
could have been the amber producers. Although angio- 
sperms were rapidly evolving during this time, none ex- 
cept Liquidambar are known to have been resin-producing 
plants. 



Washington, D.C. Amber 

A single sample of amber from the Upper Patapsco 
Formation was collected by J. Doyle from the corner of 
Branch Ave. and O Street SE, Washington, D.C. The 



amber came from a clay associated with a lignite bed at 
the top of typical Patapsco clays (Lower Cretaceous, 
A lbian Stage) which are directly overlain by cross-bedded 
sands thought to be Upper Cretaceous by C. F. Welling- 
ton (Doyle, 1966). Doyle analyzed the plant microfossils 
from these beds and found a typical Upper Patapsco 
assemblage as established by Brenner (1953), Brenner's 
palynological studies indicate that the gymnosperms of 
the Potomac forest included members of the Podocarpa- 

ceae, Araucariaceae (including Araucariacites australis 

Cook., which is comparable to modern Araucaria and 

[78] 



Agathis), Pinaceae and the Cupressaceae-Taxodiaceae 
complex. Particularly abundant in some localities is 
Inapcrturopollcnit es dubius (Potonie and Venitz) Thom- 
son and Pflug, which is considered to be a member of 
either the Taxodiaceae or Cupressaceae. Brachyphyllum- 
Pagiophyllum represented other common coniferous 
families which are now extinct. Brenner further states 
that these Potomac forests were probably similar in 
character to the warm-temperate gymnosperm and fern 
forests of New Zealand today. In these forests, Podo- 
carpaceae and Araucariceae are the dominant trees with 
a luxuriant growth of ferns characterizing the understory . 
He adds, however, that the presence of cycads and 
schizeaceous plants suggests more tropical conditions 
than exist in present New Zealand forests. 

Two spectra were run from a single piece of amber 
from this O Street sample. The spectra are similar and 
represented by H 173 (Plate XV). This spectrum re- 
sembles also Type III from Alaska (Plate XV). 



Kreischcrville A mbcr 



Hollick (1905) reported considerable quantities of am- 
ber from a Cretaceous deposit at Kreischerville, Staten 
Island, New York. He stated that the beds were an 
eastward extension of the Amboy Clay and sand series 
of New Jersey and thus included in the Raritan forma- 
tion. He further continued that they were "middle 
Cretaceous in age and approximately equivalent of the 
Cenomanian of Europe. . . " Hollick and Jeffrey (11)09) 
indicated that both the Raritan and Cliffwood ( Magothy) 
Formations were present at Kreischerville but that only 
the Raritan beds here were plant-bearing. Unfortunate- 



the 



Kreischerville d 



been investigated 



The amber occurs in strata containing closely packed 

[79] 



masses of leaves, twigs and fragments of lignite and 



charred wood. Most of it was distributed irregularly in 
the matrix of relatively thick accumulations of commi- 
nuted lignite. The amber occurs commonly as small 
teardrops or in irregularly shaped fragments varying 
from the size of a pin head to a hickory nut. It is gener- 
ally transparent and yellow or reddish in color, although 
some is opaque and grayish white. 

In 1907, Gies' chemical analysis indicated the follow- 
ing percentage elementary composition; C,78.5 ; H,9.5 ; 
S, 0.25; O, 11.75. On destructive distillation, succinic 
acid appeared to be formed and a considerable "quantity 
of volatile sulphide was evolved/* Ash content was only 
0.1%. 



amber at K 



close 



association with leafy twigs of Sequoia hctcrophylla Vel. 
and S. Rcichenbachi (Gein.) Heer, Hollick thought that 
Sequoia might also be the source of this amber. He in- 
dicates, however, other coniferous remains found in the 
Kreischerville clay which might have contributed amber : 

\l r iddringtonites Reichii (EH.) Heer, Juniperus hynoides 

Heer, Dammara microlcpsis Heer and Pinus sp. 

Jeffrey and Chrysler (1906) and Jeffrey (1907), on the 
other hand, studied the lignites from Kreischerville and 
concluded that Pityoxylon (Pinaceous) was the only 
genus which contained amber. This "pitoxyloid lignite" 
contained masses of large pieces of amber; smaller frag- 
ments were contained in the amber-bearing strata. "The 
amber enclosed in the lignite appears both in translucent 
shining condition and in dull ochraceous modification/' 
It not only occurs in "pockets or nuggets but also as fine 
yellow threads or streaks corresponding to the normal 
resin passages in the wood." 

Thus, only both a possible taxodiaceous and pinaceous 
source have been suggested for the Kreischerville amber. 

[80] 



Six amber specimens from KreisehervilJe were run 
from Harvard Botanical Museum Paleobotanical Collec- 
tion #52812. All of the spectra were similar to that shown 
in H 321 (Plate XIV). Thus, the possibility of two 
sources did not become evident in the particular samples 
analyzed. The similarity of the spectra from Kreischer- 
ville and from the Koalak River in Alaska is noteworthy. 
Although stratigraphic data for the Kreischerville de- 
posit have not recently been critically assessed, it appears 
that the amber here is probably only slightly older (Ceno- 
manian) than the Koalak amber (Senonian). Although 
a taxodiaceous source is strongly indicated for at least 
part of the amber in both localities, infrared spectra of 
modern resins of representatives of this family have not 
as yet provided corroborative evidence. This has been 
true for the Pinaceae as well. 



Magothy River timber 

Troost (1821) described amber associated with lignites 
at Cape Sable, Magothy River, Anne Arundel County, 
Maryland. These are the strata which later were desig- 
nated as the Magothy Formation (Little, 1917). Troost 
indicated that this amber occurs generally as grains ' 'from 
the size of a mustard seed to that of pieces from 4 to 5 
inches in diameter. " Most of it is opaque, varying from 
brown to yellowish grey; transparent specimens seldom 
are found. Also some of it is ''earthy", occurring as 

friable, porous masses. 

Although Troost was interested in the kind of wood 
with which the amber was associated, he was unsuccess- 
ful in identifying the lignites. Knowlton (189G), how- 
ever, found at this locality a log which contained small 
pieces of amber. Poor preservation of wood and its ten- 
dencv to disintegrate with exposure left its generic deter- 



mination 



finallv concluded 



[81] 



however, that "as nearly as can be made out, the struc- 
ture is that of Sequoia or Cupressinoooylon as the wood 
is known in the fossil state. "* He named it Cupressmoxy- 
lon Bibbinsi, and suggested that this origin was supported 
by Fontaine's recognition of 15 species of Sequoia from 
similar lignites found elsewhere in the Potomac Group. 
I lollick and Jeffrey (1901)) concluded that most of the 
conifers found in llaritan strata, which had previously 
been referred to Podocarpaceae, Cupressaceae or Taxo- 
diaceae (Sequoiineae), belonged to the Araucariaceae. 
They recognized, however, the abietinious genera Prep- 
inns and Pinus. Penny (194-7), on the other hand, sug- 
gested that some of the llaritan conifers that Hollick 
and Jeffrey considered aracauriaceous were taxodiaceous. 
For example, Sequoia Reichcnbachi (Geinitz) Heer, which 
is synonymous with Geinitzia Reichenbachii (Geinitz) 

H oil. and Jeff, Penny considers to be essentially the 
same as Sequoia ambigua Heer. He suggests that these 
species, as well as others of Geinitzia, are taxodiaceous 
rather than araucariaceous. Araucarian remains, none- 
theless, are common in the Magothy flora of New Jersey 
and Delaware. 

Five spectra were run of specimens from USNM col- 
lection F72871. This amber was generally opaque with 
some color variation from beige to brown. Four of the 
spectra gave the pattern shown in H 301 (Plate XVII). 
Another specimen from this same eol lection gave the 
typical Baltic Succinite pattern (Langenheim and Beck, 
1 905). 

A taxodiaceous source is indicated from the wood in 
which the amber was enclosed, although the identifica- 
tion of this wood is tenuous. The spectral type of this 
amber (Plate XVI 1 1) forms a family of amber including 
those from St. George, Delaware (II 357), Bordentown, 
N.J. (H 221), Cliffwood, N.J. (H422) and Kincora, 

[ 82 ] 



N.J. (H 367). This type is more closely related to the 
type from Manitoba, Canada (Plate XVI), than it is to 
that from Alaska and Kreischerville (Plates XIV, XV). 

Cliff wood A mber 

The lignitic sands and clays at Cliffwood Bluff, New 
Jersey, on Raritan Bay were first included in the llaritan 
Formation, although they also have been referred to the 
Matawan Formation (Hollick, 1897; Berry, 1905a). 
However, the lignites, and amber-bearing beds in par- 
ticular, were then considered to be in the Magothy For- 
mation. Berry (1905a) states that "a secondary feature 
of the Magothy Formation is the occurrence of amber, 
which is found in the form of globular and tear-shaped 
drops, disseminated in the lignite beds from Cliffwood 
bluff, in New Jersey, southwesterly to the type amber 
locality of the coastal plain, at Cape Sable, Md." He 
indicates further that he has not found amber in pieces 
"larger than a lima bean, although occasionally one 
hears from the foreman of the clay pits of much larger 
masses having been found." Doyle (pers. comm., 1967) 
confirms the Magothy age of at least some of the Cliff- 
wood lignites on the basis of his paljmological studies. 

Berry (1905a, b) studied the plant megafossils from 
Cliffwood and described various coniferous remains. 
Among the araucarians were Dammar a and Araucarites. 
Penny (1947) also reported Araucarioxylon with tracheal 
pitting similar to modern species of A gat his and Arau- 
caria here. Various species of Pinus, Picea and Pitoxylon 
are reported for the Pinaceae. Holden (1913) also listed 
Pityoxylon from this locality. In the Taxodiaceae, Berry 
reported various species of Sequoia, Geinitzia and Cun- 

ninghamites. 

One spectrum (Smithsonian Collection with no num- 
ber, collected by E.W. Berry from the Cliffwood Brick 

[83] 



Company) II 42'J (Plate XVIII) is similar to that of the 
Magothy River type. 

Martha 's / "ineyard _ / ruber 

Amber from Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard, Massa- 
chusetts, was collected by Clifford Kay, United States 
Geological Survey, Hoston, Massachusetts. It had been 
reported previously from this locality by Finch (18'24). 
Only a few small specimens have been found in a dark 
gray silt rich in fine plant debris, including seeds, cones, 



needles, leaf fragments and a variety of plant tissue ex- 
cellently preserved (Kay, pers. comm., 19G0). Unfor- 
tunately , these remains have not as yet been identified. 
Palynological evidence from these beds (J. Doyle, pers. 
comm., 1967) indicates their belonging to the Upper 
Raritan or Lower Magothy Formations. 



The spectrum (II 111, Plate XXI) is quite distinctive 
from any of the other ambers from Cretaceous strata. 
The intensity of absorption in the carbon-oxygen single 
bond region (8-10/u) may indicate a higher percentage of 
carbohydrates (as in a gum-resin). The presence of a dis- 
tinct absorption peak at 11.8/* (885 cm* 1 ) is also notable. 



j~ 



I mbcr from Other Atlantic Coastal Plain Localities 



Amber was obtained from six other localities along 
the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Stratigraphic data for these 
localities are unknown to the authors. It is assumed, 
however, that the amber most likely occurs in Raritan 
or Magothy beds. 



1 11 



Phree spectra of "Ambrosine" from Charleston, South 
Carolina (USNM collection R7317), were made. The 
spectral type represented by II '210 (Plate XVII) is 
typical of that of Baltic Succinite (Heck et a/., 1964; 
I960; Langenheim and Reck, 1965). Shepard (187 
suggested that this amber originated from conifers from 

[84] 




the "pleiocene epoch." Striitigraphic data are Jacking, 
but Ambrosine has generally been considered from Cre- 
taceous Atlantic Coastal Plain deposits (probably from 
the Tuscaloosa Formation, which does not differ greatly 
in age from the Magothy, according to Groot, Penny 
and Groot (1961) ). Shepard described the original collec- 
tion as an irregular, oval-shaped mass the size of a man" s 
fist, yellow-brown externally but clove-brown inside. It 
melted to a clear yellow liquid at 460° F, giving con- 
siderable succinic acid before melting. On fusion, a dense 



f 



ed, producing an odor sim 
pas larffelv soluble in turne 



alcohol, ether and chloroform. The name "Ambrosine*' 
was coined by compounding the two words "amber" 
and "rosin." 

Three spectra were run from Kincora, Burlington 
County, New Jersey, from the United States National 
Museum Collection 5610. Spectrum H 307 (Plate XVII) 
is similar to that typical of the Magothy River famil}^ of 
ambers. A variation of this spectrum with a band de- 
veloped at 12-12.3ju (833-813 cm 1 ) also occurs. 

A single spectrum was made of amber from St. 
Georges, Delaware (USNM #825.52). Spectrum H 357 
(Plate XVIII) is generally similar to those from the 
Magothy River and Kincora, New Jersey, localities 
(Plate XVII). Three spectra were made of amber from 
Bordentown, N. J., (USGS collection # 95367). All three 
were similar to that represented byH 225 (Plate XV I II), 
although the 9.8/ot (1020 cm 1 ) band is sometimes more 
accentuated. This spectral type also belongs to the 
Magothy River family. 

Eleven spectra were made of amber from USNM col- 
lection R 7289 from Roebling, N.J. Considerable vari- 



ation in spectra occurs from specimens in this single 
collection. The general variation is shown in spectra H 



[8 



o 



350, II 410, and H 420 (Plate XIX). All of this amber 
is opaque, with the color varying from light beige to 
streaks of almost black. The variation in the spectra ap- 
pear to be due largely to intensity and resolution of the 
bands. Roebling Type 1 resembles the Magothy River 
family of spectra. 

Amber from Harrison ville, N.J. (Gloucester Co.) was 
reported by Kunz (1888). It was found from 20 to 28 
feet under a green sand or marl containing invertebrate 
fossils which were considered "to belong to the middle 
bed of the Upper Cretaceous series/' Kunz indicated 
that no analysis had been made of this amber, but he 
felt "the similarity in specific gravity, hardness and igni- 
tion leaves little doubt of its being true amber, or of its 



having been derived from a gum closely resembling that 
which is the source of the Baltic and other ambers.'' 

The spectrum H 409 (Plate XX) disproves this rela- 
tionship completely. The Harrisonville amber differs 
from almost all other fossil resins in that it lacks a well 
defined carbonyl group. Carbon-carbon unsaturation 
causes a sharp absorption band at 6.1ft (1650 cm -1 ) of 
such intensity that the broader hydroxyl absorption in 
this region fails to obscure it. The distinctive pair of 
bands at 1S.3[jl and 14.3/x (750 cur 1 and 700 cm 1 ) is 
clear evidence for the presence of mono-substituted ben- 
zenoid rings. This indicates a composition similar to 
that of the Kuropean fossil resin siegburgite which has 
been related to Liquidambar by chemical studies in 
which cinnamic acid and styrene were isolated (Klinger 
and Pitschki, 1884). These aromatic resins form a small 
but distinctive family of their own, which differ dramati- 
cally from the usual terpenoid resins which alone can be 
called "true amber/" 

The resin from Pemberton, N..I. (II 417, Plate XX) 
is of the same aromatic type as the Harrisonville sample 

[86] 



with the exception of lacking the broad intense band 
which obscures the region between 8 and 11//, (1250 and 
990 cm -1 ) in the Harrisonville sample. It also may well 
be due to inorganic impurities (silicates) which are 
characteristic of the European siegburgite. 

Canadian Amber 

Tyrrell (1890) investigated the occurrence of amber 
associated with fragments of decayed wood on the beach 
around the southwestern margin of Cedar Lake, near the 
mouth of the Saskatchewan River, Manitoba, Canada. 
He reported abundant amber along the beach for a mile, 
in a band thirty feet wide with a minimum depth of two 
feet. He further estimated that this deposit contained 
1,437/280 ( !) pounds of amber. He also discovered amber 
occurring less extensively on shores of other lakes north 
and east of Cedar Lake. Because the amber has been 
deposited secondarily, the geologic age is uncertain. As 
Carpenter et al. (1938) indicated, however, Cedar Lake 
is led by an easterly flowing river that drains through 
lisrnitic beds of late Cretaceous ace in Alberta and south 



Saskatchewan. Thus, other amber-bearing deposits from 
which Cedar Lake amber could have originated are not 
evident. Carpenter et al. point out that the insect in- 
clusions also provide support for a Cretaceous age. Evi- 
dence for a more specific time during the long Cretaceous 
interval, however, is not available. 

Although it cannot be definitely related to the Cedar 
Lake deposits, amber with insects found recently at 
Medicine Hat, Alberta (Richards, 19GG), is of some in- 
terest in regard to the Manitoban material. The Medi- 
cine Hat amber is associated with lignitic deposits from 
the Foremost Formation (Belly River Series, Upper 
Cretaceous). The Belly River Series falls within the 
Campanian Stage, as K/Ar dates for the Bearpaw shales 

[ 87 



that occur immediately above the Foremost horizons at 
Medicine Hat range from 72 to 73 million years. None 
of this amber has as yet been available for analysis. 

Amber collected by Tyrrell was studied by Harring- 
ton (1891) and named chemawinite. Klebs (189(5), 
apparently unaware that Harrington had described it, 
analyzed the same type of amber from Cedar Lake and 
called it cedarite. Schmid (1930), in his review of fossil 
resins, classifies them as (a) "Bernstein which yields suc- 
cinic acid on distillation, the principal type being succin- 
ite, (b) those resembling Bernstein, including cedarite, 
and (c) those quite different from (fern stehende) Bern- 
stein, including chemawinite.' ' Walker has already 
pointed out, "the two Canadian minerals, cedarite and 

chemawinite, are identical, as appears probable both from 
the chemical and physical data recorded by Harrington 
and Klebs, and from the localities from which the ma- 
terial was obtained." Harrington (1891) made the most 



f this amber. The hard 



fi 



o 



C. The mean 



percentages of constituents from elemental analyses 
were: C, 79.90% ; H, 10.40% ; O, 9.49% and ash 0.9%. 
The ash contained silica, alumina, iron, calcium and 

magnesium. 20.01% of the amber dissolved in absolute 
alcohol and 24.84% in absolute ether. Small fragments 



heated in a closed tube began to soften at about 150 C. 

Heated to 300° C, the resin did not melt into a flowing 

liquid but had become soft and elastic and darkened 

from partial decomposition. Harrington concluded that 

this Canadian amber was more resistant to heat than 
Baltic amber. Succinic acid, so characteristic of Baltic 
amber (Succinite), is absent. These facts, in addition to 
the presence of more carbon and less oxygen than Baltic 

Succinite, led him to conclude that the Canadian amber 

"is closer to Walchowite and to some of the more recent 

copals from India." 

[88] 



This Canadian amber is transparent, varying from pale 
yellow, red to dark amber in color. Walker (1934) re- 
ported that the smallness of the amber grains (58 °/o being 
less than eight mesh and only 3 c /o larger than two mesh) 
was a point of difference from that of the generally larger 
masses characteristic of Baltic amber. He suggested that 
this might indicate conifers of types yielding little resin 
when wounded, in contrast to those which produced 
resin copiously in the Baltic forests. 

Eleven spectra were run on amber from Cedar Lake. 
Ten of these spectra were of specimens from the Harvard 
University Entomological Collections. All of these gave 
the same pattern represented by H 316 (Plate XVI), 
although some spectra were sharper than others. Also 
the pattern of amber from Cedar Lake, Manitoba, is 
similar to Ambrite (H 226, Plate XVI) from New Zea- 



land (USNM #7312). Both of these spectra, in turn, are 
similar to resin from A gat his australis, the Kauri pine 
(H 265, Plate XVI). Since A. australis is noted for its 
capacity to produce large quantities of resin, it is a logi- 
cal source for fossilized resin from New Zealand. A 
possible Araucarian source, such as Agathis or related 
araucarians, for this Canadian amber is interesting and 
suggestive. More resins of members of the Araucariaceae 
need to be analyzed, before a definite correlation is made. 
Also the possible presence of Agathis australis (called 
Dammura australis Lamb.) in the Kreischerville, N. Y., 
deposits is noteworthy. Certainly, in the Potomac (Al- 
bian), Raritan (Cenomanian-Turonian) and M agot hy 
(Early Cenomanian) Formations along the Atlantic 
Coastal Plain, members of the Araucariaceae were com- 
mon, and an araucarian-type resin could well be ex- 
pected. Araucarian leaf remains, i.e., Araiicarites longi- 
Jblia, are reported from Upper Cretaceous beds in the 
Rocky Mountains (Lance) by Dorf (1942), although 

[89] 



remains similar to Agathis have not been listed. 
One Cedar Lake specimen (USNM $297080) gave a 
spectrum similar to that of Baltic Succinite (Langenheim 
and Beck, 1965). The presence of this spectral type 
miszht suiruest two different botanical sources of the am- 



»" ~ ~~»» 



ber from the Manitoban deposit. 

Baja California Amber 

Buddhue (1935) described "Bacalite" as amber pre- 
sumably from Baja California, Mexico. Since this amber 
cannot be shown to have come from Baja California, 
Langenheim, Buddhue and Jalinek (1965) recognized 



that "it may have come from any place in the world/* 
They mention, however, the particular likelihood of its 
being from the amber deposits of Chiapas, Mexico. 

Ilurd, Smith and Durham (1962) reported docu- 
mented occurrences of amber from Baja California, based 



on the discovery by A.C. Allison and F. H. Kelmer. 
Langenheim, Buddhue and Jelinek (1965) further elabo- 
rated on the age and occurrence of this amber. It has 
been observed at three localities between Punt a San Jose 
and Punta Cabras. At each locality, a single nodule of 
amber from l! 2 inches in diameter was collected from 
siltstone or sandstone thought to be latest Campanian or 

earliest Maestrichtian in age. At Punta Baja, about 10 
miles southwest of El liosario, small fragments of amber 

occur in sandstone with carbonized leaf impressions. 

Metaplefenticiraspacificum Smith occurs in the same bed 

and indicates late Campanian age. Small grains of amber 
and carbonized wood were also reported from a sandstone 
interbedded with a claystone south of the mouth of 
Arroyo Rosario. 

Four spectra were run from a single collection (Uni- 
versity of California, Museum of Paleontology, B-3006) 
from the Punta San Jose locality. The material generally 

[ 90 ] 



is opaque, varying in color from beige to molasses to 
almost black. More variation occurred in the spectra from 
these few pieces than is frequently the case where a larger 
number of samples have been run, i.e., from Chiapas, 
Mexico and Alaska. Three spectra showing this variation 
are presented in Plate XXII. Type I (H 45) and Type 
II (H 320) are similar, but Type III differs in having 
a broader and more intense absorption band between 
9-lOfi (1110-1000 cnr 1 ). This may be due to inclusions 
of siliceous material. Type III was taken from a light 
beige portion of a banded specimen of which Type II 
represents the darker portions. As indicated with the 
Roebling, N.J. amber, more heterogeneity must be ex- 
pected in the opaque amber types than in the trans- 
parent ones. 

Early Tertiary Amber 

Amber is reported to occur in strata from early Terti- 
ary time(Eocene to Miocene) in various areas throughout 
North and South America. A fairly extensive deposit 
has been discovered in Chiapas, Mexico, and is being 
intensively investigated by geologists, entomologists and 
botanists. Thus, the Chiapas deposit can serve as a useful 
standard for comparison of other Tertiary ambers as the 
Alaskan deposit does for Cretaceous ambers. Small 
amounts of Eo-Oligocene amber occur near Seattle, 
Washington; amber of probable Oligocene age occurs 
in the Dominican Republic and of Miocene age in Para, 
Brazil. The age of amber from several other localities 
probably is early Tertiary, but stratigraphic data are 
lacking. 

Chiapas Amber 

Amber from Chiapas, the southernmost state in Mex- 
ico, has been reported in mineralogical studies (Helm, 
1891; Kunz, 1908; Tschirch, 190G; Hintze, 1933; 

[91] 



Buddhue, 1935; Tschirch and Stock, 1930), but it has 
neither been analyzed chemically and physically nor been 
given a mineralogical name. The geologic occurrence 
was first recorded bv Bose in 1905. A coordinated scien- 
tific investigation was initiated by entomologists and 
later included geologists and botanists (H urd and Smith, 
1957; Hurd, Smith and Durham, 19G2; Langenheim, 
1964, 1900, 1967; Langenheim, Hackner, and Bartlett, 

1907). 

The amber-bearing beds are in a sequence of primarily 

marine, calcareous sandstones and siltstones which are 
mostly exposed in landslides. All amber-bearing locali- 
ties are considered latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene 
in age, based on marine invertebrate fossils (Licari, I960 ; 
Hurd, Smith and Durham, 1902). Pollen from the strata 
either containing the amber or immediately adjacent to 
them indicates development of mangrove vegetation of 
considerable complexity at or close to the site of depo- 
sition of the amber (Langenheim, Hackner and Bartlett, 

1907). 

Previous discussions have presented evidence support- 
inn the conclusion that this amber was derived from the 



leguminous genus Hymenaea (Langenheim, 1963; Lan- 
genheim and Beck, 1905; Langenheim, 1900; and 
Langenheim, 19G7). Spectra were made of various resins 
from populations existing in Chiapas today. Each genus, 
as well as certain species populations, was clearly dis- 
tinghishable. Remarkably consistent spectra were ob- 
tained from 35 samples of Hymenaea Courbaril L. from 
various populations in Mexico, Guatemala, Dominica, 
Costa Rica, Guyana, Venezuela, Brazil and Ecuador. 
Forty specimens of Chiapas amber from the University 
of California, Museum of Paleontologj^ Collections from 
various localities were chosen for spectra because they 
showed some difference in physical character. The color 

[ 92 ] 



of this amber varies from yellow, golden brown, red to 
black; the most common being the yellow and golden 
brown hues. Variety in appearance tended to indicate 
that several kinds of trees might have produced the am- 
ber. All but two specimens fit into two spectral patterns 
indicated as Type I (H 1 A) and Type II (H 88), Plate 
XXIII* A third type (H lC) gives an ill defined spec- 
trum. It was, therefore, initially assumed that these three 
patterns might indicate three different sources (Langen- 
heim, 1963). The two major types (14 samples of each), 
however, are similar to each other, except for the more 
general flattening of the bands and loss of the sharp band 
at 11.2-11. 8/x, (895-885 cm" 1 ) in Type II. The similarity 
is now thought to be suflicient to suggest that both Type 
I and Type II were derived from the same source and 
that the differences may be explained by additional at- 
mospheric oxidation and progressive polymerization. The 
two specimens representing Type III (H lC, Plate 
XXIII) are black in general appearance, although small 



pieces show a ruby red color in transmitted light. The 
pieces are extremely soft and friable, indicating that they 
had been partially decomposed. Type I had a spectrum 
similar to that of Hymenaea Courbaril (H 1B-IV, H 58, 
Plate XXVII), although there are some differences. 
Lanpenheim and Beck (19G5) explained that the broad 



band at 14.2-14.4/i (705-700 cm" 1 ) due to unassigned 
skeletal vibration has disappeared in the amber. The 
11.3/u, (885 cm -1 ) band which can be assigned to =CH^ 
out-of-plane deformation of terminal carbon-carbon 
bonds decreases, as would be an expected result of pro- 
gressive oxidation by atmospheric oxygen. The attend- 
ant formation of new carbon-oxygen bonds would also 
account for the slight shift of absorption maximum near 
8/x (1250 cm -1 ) which is more often at 7.6/* (1295 cm -1 ) 
in the Hymenaea resin but more often at 8. 1/x (1235 cm" 1 

[93] 



in the amber. It is also significant that none of the other 
resin producers in Chiapas today had spectra resembling 
the amber (Langenheim and Beck, 1965). Thus, the in- 
frared spectra have given convincing evidence that the 
Chiapas amber was derived from an ancestral member 

of Hymenaea. 

The presence of Hymenaea leaflets in the amber pro- 
vides further corroboration for the source (Langenheim, 
19GG). This conclusion receives additional support from 
studies of the manner of resin production and accumula- 
tion in Hymenaea Courbaril (Langenheim, 1967) and the 
depositional conditions of the amber. H. Courbaril pro- 
duces large quantities of resin that accumulate in the soil 
around the roots, and in Mexico today it grows common- 
ly along rivers that enter the ocean in mangrove-fringed 
estuaries. Analysis of the pollen in the amber-bearing 
beds indicates that the amber was deposited in such an 
estuarine environment with abundant mangrove present 
(Langenheim, Hackner and Partlett, 19(17). 

Seattle Amber 



Amber from the Renton Formation near Seattle, 
Washington, was discovered by J. AVolfe. Vine (1962) 
considers the Renton to be late Eocene to early Oligo- 
cene in age. Wolfe (pers. com., 19(H)) reports that there 

are no plant fossils at the amber locality itself, although 
they are common in the Puget Group, of which the Ren- 
ton Formation is a member. Conifers present are taxo- 
diaceous, including Sequoia, ]\Ietasequoia and Glypto- 
strobus. The dicotyledonous flora is rich but still largely 
unidentified. The La Porte and Comstock floras are 
about the same age as the Renton. 

Five spectra were run of amber from the Museum of 

Paleontology, University of California Collection B8427. 
Most of this amber occurs in small friable pieces. It is 

[94] 



pale yellow and transparent. Chemical and physical 
analyses have not been made. There was some variation 
in the spectral patterns (Plate XXIV) as indicated in 
Type I and Type II (Spectra H 323 and H 42A). These 
spectral types from Seattle are similar to those of Types 
1 and II from Baja California (Plates XXII and XXIV) 
which indicates possibly that they may be from the same 
source. There are no present suggestions for the botanic 
source from these two localities either from associated 
plant remains or from spectra of modern resins. 

Dominican Republic Amber 

Sanderson and Farr (1960) state that amber was first 
reported from what now is the Dominican Republic by 
Christopher Columbus during his second voyage to the 
West Indies betw T een 1494 and 1490. No further refer- 
ence to Dominican amber during the next 400 years 
appears to have been recorded. In 1905, Sample described 
an amber-bearing formation in the Monte Cristi Range 
(Cordillera Septentrional). Lengweiler (1939) then re- 
ported that fragments of lignite, leaves, and insects, 
such as mosquitos and ants, were found in the amber. 

Sanderson and Farr (1960) indicate that the amber- 
bearing formation in the Dominican Republic are located 
at two principal sites in the Cordillera Septentrional 
north of Santiago between Altamira and Conca. The 
original site is the Pena (Tamboril) region in the two 
gorges of the Arroyo Capancho tributary of the Rio 
Gurado. The second site is below Pico Diego de Ocampo 
in the Palo Alto de la Cumbre region. Sanderson and 
Farr collected the amber in a light brown-dark grey, 
fine-grained, micaceous sandstone occurring below a silty 
shale at this second site. Brower (Sanderson and Farr, 
19G0) believes this amber to be Oligocene in age, al- 
though the exact date remains in doubt. The amber 



[9 



o 



occurs irregularly as small broken fragments to large 

unbroken pieces. Transparent, un fractured pieces are 
common, but many small broken pieces are brittle and 

fracture. The color varies from clear crystal through 
various amber-shades to deep red. Chemical or physical 

analyses have not been made of this amber. 

Six spectra were made of amber from the Dominican 

Republic. Type I (H 37) is from a specimen from the 

Palo Alto de la Cumbre site collected by Sanderson 



(Plate XXV). Three others from an unidentified locality 
near Santiago gave a pattern similar to this one from the 
known site. Two were run of specimens from USNM 
collection #116783, from Palo Quemado, Santiago Pro- 
vince, Santo Domingo. These samples gave a more 
generalized spectrum as represented by (H 427) than the 
other four (Plate XXV). They are designated as spec- 
tral Type II, and represent probably more oxidized 
specimens as indicated by the almost complete loss of 
the 1 1 .3fJL (885 cm -1 ) band. The spectral pattern is unique 

for North and South American ambers examined thus 
far. No extant groups have given a pattern similar to 

this, and, with correlative paleobotanical data lacking, 
there presently is no hint as to botanical source. 

Brazilian Amber 

A single piece of amber has been collected from the 

Pirabas Formation near Capanema, Para, Brazil. This 
formation is considered early Miocene in age and is ac- 
companied by numerous dicotyledenous leaves (Lelia 
Duarte, pers. com., 1966). Spectrum H 452 is closely 
similar to resin from extant Hymcnaca Courbaril (Plate 

XXVII I), especially from Urazil (H 61) and Costa Rica 
(H 252). Hymenaea thus appears to have been the source 

of this amber as well as that from Chiapas, Mexico. 
Perhaps future paleobotanical studies on these beds will 
give additional supporting evidence. 

[ 96 ] 



Am her of Unknown Age 



The geologic age and paleobotanic information are not 
available for a number of amber collections. These col- 
lections are being presented separately, although they 
will be related to ambers of known age wherever this 
appears justifiable. 

Greenland Amber 



Two spectra were made of amber from Hare Island in 
Greenland from a collection from Museum fur Natur- 
kunde, Berlin. The amber occurred as droplets in coal. 
The spectrum (H 1G5) is poorly developed, due probably 
to oxidation (Plate XV). This amber is assumed to be 
Cretaceous, because of the extensive, well known Cre- 
taceous plant fossil localities in this area of Greenland, 
although there is no direct confirmation of this age. 



Montana Amber 

Nine spectra were run of the amber from Montana. 
Collections were available from the United States 
National Museum and the New York Museum of Natu- 
ral History. No geologic age is indicated for this amber. 
Four spectra were made from the USNM Collection 
#112822, listed only from "Montana." They are repre- 
sented by the Type I pattern represented by H 404 (Plate 
XX). This is the third example of the aromatic series de- 
scribed above from Pemberton, N.J. (H 417) and Har- 
risonville, N.J. (H 409). The Montana sample is virtually 
indistinguishable from that from Pemberton. Both lack 



the broad absorption band of the Harrisonville sample 
between 9 and 10/x (1110-1000 cm -1 ) which we have as- 
signed to silicate impurities. 

Five spectra were run from the N.Y. Museum of 
Natural History collection #18395, listed from Washoe, 
Montana. Four spectra gave the pattern of Type II 

[97] 



(H 40,5) and one gives Type 111 (H 425) shown in Plate 
XXI. The small differences between these two types 
may be due to oxidation and progressive polymerization. 
Both are similar to the Magothy River family. 

Canon Diablo, Arizona Amber 

One spectrum (H 3G5) of amber was run from USNM 
collection #62993 (Plate XXIV). The age of this sample 
is unknown; in fact, no data are available for it. The 
spectrum is somewhat like those belonging to the Atlan- 
tic Coastal Plain Magothy family of ambers. 



Ecuadorian ^Imbei 



Amber from a ' 'large deposit" near Guayaquil, Ecua- 
dor, was reported by Johnston (1888) and named Guaya- 
quillite. No geologic age was given. Two kinds, a light 
yellow, almost homogeneous material and a dark brown, 
bituminous-like substance, were found. The "pure" 
mineral is opaque, powders easily, and is soluble in alco- 
hol. The specific gravity is 1.092 and the melting point 

between 157°-212° C. 

Three spectra were made from USNM collection 
R7328. Spectrum ( H 212) is typical for the three (Plate 
XXV). Frondell (1967) has shown that X-ray diffraction 
patterns of Guayaquillite are similar to those of a sample 
of various species of Protium, a genus in the Burseraceae. 
Some infrared spectra of Protium Icicariba suggest the 
same relationship, whereas other species of Protium 
differ significantly. 



Colombian Ambei 



We have examined amber from two localities in Co- 
lombia. Boussingault (1843) reported amber to have been 
found in large amounts in a gold-bearing alluvium at 
Giron, near Bucaramanga, Departamento de Santander 

[ 98 ] 



del Norte, From the locality, this amber has been named 
Bucaramangite. Since it was found in alluvium, it might 
have been transported some distance from beds of any 
age. The sample analyzed came from a pale yellow trans- 
parent piece that weighed 12 kg. It is insoluble in alco- 
hol, swells and becomes opaque in ether and does not 
contain succinic acid. 

Four spectra were run from USNM collection #R7317* 
Three spectra (Plate XXVI) were similar to Type I 
(H 429). Another spectrum was like Type II (H 208) 
which had a better resolved version of Type I. 

Cockerell (1928) reports two species of Diptcra in 
amber from the Valle de Jesus in the Departamento de 
Santander del Sur. He characterized it only as being 
"relatively soft" and of "uncertain age.*' 

Amber from Medellin, Colombia, is also available from 
USNM collection #97460. Although it is listed as "co- 
palite, ' ' we are unaware that its geologic age or its chemi- 
cal or physical description have been published. Six 



spectra were run and H 359 (Plate XXVI) is represent- 
ative of them. 

The spectra represented by H 208 (Giron) and H 359 
(Medellin) can be related generally to spectra of Hy- 
menaea Courbaril, just as in the case of amber from Chia- 
pas, Mexico. In previous discussions of Chiapas amber 
(Langenheim and Beck, 19G5; Langenheim, 19GG; 
Langenheim, 19G7), spectra of resin from modern pop- 
ulations of Hymcnaea Courbaril were compared from 
Mexico, Guatemala, British Guiana (Guyana), Brazil, 
Venezuela, and Ecuador. Considerable similarity in the 
spectra throughout the wide distribution of this popula- 
tion was noted, although certain populations were more 
similar than others. For example, spectra of the Chiapas 
amber resembled more closely the spectra of Hymen ac a 
resin from populations in Mexico and Guatemala than 

[99] 



those with a more southern distribution. Therefore, it 
was not surprising when the spectra of amber from Giron 
and Medellin, Colombia, compared closely with H. 



Courbaril resin from Guyana and Brazil (Plate XXVII). 

We presently do not have specimens of II. Courbaril 
from Colombia. 

These spectra of Colombian amber seem sufficiently 
close to present-day Hymenaea to indicate its possible 
botanic origin. Unfortunately, we do not know the geo- 
logic age nor have corroborative evidence for the botanic 
source from plants included in the amber or in the amber- 
bearing beds, such as was available for the amber from 



Chiapas, Mexico. 



[100] 



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[i» 



3 



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Phoroidea). The Canadian Entomologist 98 (5): 527-544. 

Mirov, N.T. 1961. Composition of gum turpentines of pines. USDA 
For. Serv. Tech. Bull. 1239. 

. 1967. The genus Pinus. Ronald Press, N.Y. 602 pp. 



Morton, S.G. 1830. Synopsis of the organic remains of the Ferru- 
ginous Sand Formation of the United States, with geological re- 
marks. Am. Jour. Sci. 17: 274-295. 

Paclt, J. 1953. A system of caustolites. Tschermaks Miner, u. Pet- 
rog. Mitt. Bd. 3, H. 4: 332-347. 

Penny, J.S. 1947. Studies on the conifers of the Magothy flora. 
Am. Jour. Bot. 34: 281-296. 

Richards, W.R. 1966. Systematics of fossil aphids from Canadian 
amber (Homoptera : Aphididae). The Canadian Entomologist 98 
(l): 746-760. 

Ross, H.H. 1956. The Cretaceous Caddis fly, Dolophilus praemissus 
Cock. Proc. 10th Inter. Congress Entomol. 1 : 849. (Abst.) 

Sample, C.G. 1905. Amber in Santa Domingo. Engineering and 
Mining Jour. 80: 250-251. 

Sanderson, H.W. and T.H. Farr. 1960. Amber with insect and plant 
inclusions from the Dominican Republic. Science 131: 1313. 

[104] 



Schmid, L. 1930. Bernstein" in C. Doelter and H. Leitmeier, 
Handbuch der Mineralchemie. 

Schoewe, W.H. 1942. Kansas amber. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 45: 
29. 

Shepard, C.U. 1870. On Ambrosine, a new organic mineral sub- 
stance. The Rural Carolinian 1: 311. 

Sinnott, E.W. and H.H. Bartlett. 1916. Coniferous words of the 
Potomac formation. Am. Jour. Sci. IV 41 : 276-293. 

Smiley, C.J. 1966. Cretaceous floras from Kuk River Area, Alaska: 
Stratigraphic and climatic interpretations. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 
77: 1-14. 

Spangler, W.B. and J.J. Peterson. 1950. Geology of the Atlantic 
coastal plain in New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. 
Bull. Amer. Petrol. Geol. 34: 1-99. 

Steeves, M.W. 1959. The pollen and spores of the Raritan and Ma- 
gothy formations (Cretaceous) of Long Island. Unpubl. thesis, 
Ph.D., Dept. of Biology, Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass. 

Stover, Lewis E. 1964. Comparison of three Cretaceous spore-pollen 
assemblages from Maryland and England. Palynology in Oil Ex- 
ploration, Soc. Econ. Paleo. and Mineral., Spec. Publ. 11: 143- 
152. 

Troost, G. 1821. Description of a variety of amber and of a fossil 
substance supposed to be the nest of an insect, discovered at Cape 
Sable, Magothy River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Am. 
Jour. Sci. 3 : 8-15. 

Tschirch, A. 1906. Die Harze und die Harzebehiilter. Leipzig. 

and E. Stock. 1936. Die Harze. Ed. 3. 2 Vols., Berlin. 

Tyrrell, J. B. 1890. Ann. Rept., Geol. Surv. Canada, N.S. V:30-lA. 

Vine, James D. 1962. Stratigraphy of Eocene rocks of a part of King 
Co., Washington, Division of Mines and Geol. Rept. 21. 

Walker, T.L. 1934. Chemawinite or Canadian amber. Univ. Toronto 
Stud., Geol. Ser. 36: 5-10. 



[ 105 ] 



WAVE NUMBER 



4000 



(CM-ij 



r 



1 



o 




x 




WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



Infrared spectra of Cretaceous amber from Alaska Types I and II and Kreischerville, N.\ 



4000 3000 
I 



2000 

_l 



WAVE NUMBER (CM 



-1 




1500 

_l 



1000 



900 




800 

_L_ 



700 

_1_ 



> 



c 





ALASKA 



WASHINGTON. D.C. 



H 173 



GREENLAND 



H 165 



i 



l 



i 



i 



i 



i 



i 



i 



i 



i 



i 



3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



9 



10 



WAVELENGTH 



(microns) 



11 



12 



13 



14 



Infrared spectra of Cretaceous amber from Alaska Type III, from Washington, D.C. and 



of unknown aare from Greenland. 








^ 





15 



WAVE NUMBER 



4000 



2000 



(CM" 1 ) 




' 1 




X 



1 I 




..-.. 



X 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



Infrared spectra of Cretaceous amber from Manitoba, Canada, Pleistocene amber from New 
Zealand, and of modern resin from Agathis australis. 



4000 3000 



2000 



WAVE NUMBER 



1500 



(CM- 
1000 





o 



3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



9 



10 



11 



12 



13 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 










^ 



14 



Infrared spectra of Cretaceous amber from Magothy River, Maryland ; Kincora, N.J. ; 
and Charleston, S.C. 



WAVE 



4000 3000 

i 





fc <* 



X 




•i 



3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



9 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



Infrared spectra of Cretaceous amber from St. Georges, Delaware; Bordentown, N.J. ; 
and Clitfwood, N.J. 



4000 



WAVE 



i \ 



i i 




WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



hj 









* 



Infrared spectra or Cretaceous amber from lloebling, N.J. Types I, II and III. 



4000 3000 



2000 



WAVE NUMBER 



(CM 



i 



1500 



r > 



I J 




r 



w -- 



X 

X 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



Infrared spectra of Cretaceous amber from Pemberton, N.J. and Harrisonville, N.J. 
and unknown age from Montana Type I. 



4000 3000 



WAVE NUMBER 



j 




^ 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



Infrared spectra of amber of unknown age from Montana Types II and III 
and Cretaceous amber from Martha's Vineyard, Mass. 



> 



ft 



4000 



WAVE NUMBER (CM" 1 ) 



' — i 



4- 




3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



WAVELENGTH 



9 10 

(MICRONS) 



11 



12 



13 



14 



Infrared spectra of Cretaceous amber from Baja, California, Mexico, Types I, II and III 



15 



-S 



w - 



X 
X 



4000 3000 



2000 



WAVE NUMBER 



1500 



(CM-I) 
1000 



900 



800 



1 « 



I J 



3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



9 



10 



11 



12 



13 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



700 




14 



Infrared spectra of Oligo-Miocene amber from Chiapas, Mex 



ico, Types I, Hand III. 



L 






15 



4000 3000 



WAVE NUMBER 



(CM-i) 



f 1 



3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



9 



WAVELENGTH 



10 
(MICRONS) 



11 



12 



13 




r 



*. ^ 







< 



14 



15 



Infrared spectra of Eocene amber from Seattle, Washington , Types I and II and amber 
of unknown age from Canon Diablo, Arizona, 



WAVE NUMBER 



4000 3000 
i 



2000 

i 



1500 
I 



(CM-i) 
1000 

L_ 



900 
I 



800 

f 



i 



700 
l 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



14 



Infrared spectra of Oligocene amber from the Dominican Republic, Types I and II and 
amber of unknown age from Guayaquil, Ecuador. 




> 



K 




X 




""1 



15 



WAVE NUMBER 



i 1 



X 



I I 



(CM-i) 




WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



Infrared spectra of amber of unknown age from Gir6n, Colombia, Types I and II and from 
Medellin, Colombia. 






h. - 



X 

X 



4000 3000 



2000 



WAVE NUMBER (CM" 1 ) 



to 




3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



9 



10 



11 



12 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



13 



14 



Infrared spectra of Oligo-Mioeene amber from Chiapas, Mexico, modern resin from Hymenaea 



Courbaril from Mexico and Guyana and, amber of unknown age from Giron, Colombia. 



15 



> 



k J 






1 



4000 3000 



WAVE NUMBER 



2000 



1500 



(CM-i) 
1000 



K 




K 



3 



4 



5 



6 



7 



8 



9 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



WAVELENGTH 



(MICRONS) 



Infrared spectra of Miocene amber from Para, Brazil, and modern resin of Hymenaea Courbaril 






^ 



15 



from Costa Rica and Brazil. 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 10, 1969 Vol. 22, No. 4 



I)E PLANTIS TOXICARIIS E MUNDO 
NOVO TROP1CALE COMMENTATIONES III 



PHYTOCHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF SPRUCE'S ORIGINAL 

COLLECTION OF BANISTERIOPSIS CAAPI 

BY 

Richard Evans Sciiultes 1 , Bo Holmstedt 

and Jan- Erik Lindgren 2 



Richard Spruce, the humble Yorkshire schoolmaster- 
bryologist, became one of the outstanding tropical plant 
explorers of all time. On July 12, 1849, he arrived at 
the mouth of the Amazon to start his epoch-making 
botanical studies and collections that spanned a period of 
fifteen years (1849-1864) in the Amazon and the Andes. 

Spruce (Plate XXX) was far ahead of his day in 
scientific thought and method. He lived closely with 
native peoples, learned several languages and kept his 
mind ever inquisitive and his eye ever perceptive. For 
a number of plants that have later attracted extensive 
phytochemical and pharmacological attention — and 
which are still claiming serious studies — it was Spruce 
who gave us detailed, accurate, pioneer information. 

One of these plants was a jungle liana, source of an 
extraordinary hallucinogenic drink called caapi in Brazil, 
ayahuasca in Ecuador and Peru. It was in 1852, during 

botanical Museum of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

* Department of Toxicology, Swedish Medical Research Council, 
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 

[ 121 ] 



the early stages of his five years of field work on the upper 
Rio Negro in Amazonian Brazil, that Spruce first learned 
of caapi amongst the Tukanoan tribes of the region. It 
was employed to induce, for prophetic and divinatory 
purposes, an intoxication characterized, amongst other 
strange syndromes, by frighteningly realistic colored 
visual hallucinations and a feeling of extreme and reck- 
less bravery. Unlike many early reports of newly dis- 
covered narcotics, Spruce's contribution included a 
precise determination of the botanical source of the druer. 

Finding caapi cultivated along the Rio Negro, he 
noted that "there were about a dozen well growing 
plants . . . twining up to the tree tops . . . and several 
smaller ones. It was fortunately in flower and young 
fruit; and I saw. not without surprise, that it belonged 



to the . . . Malpighiaceae ..." A collection in full 

flower (Spruce 2712) was taken from the liana, and he 
drew up a description of the species from living speci- 
mens. He allocated the species to the genus Banisteria, 



calling it Banisteria Caapi from the vernacular name. 



This deseription was published by the botanist Grisebach. 
As taxonomic understanding of the family grew in the 
present century, the American specialist, C.V. Morton, 
ascertained that this species-concept could not with pre- 
cision be included in Banisteria, and, in 1931, he trans- 
ferred it to the genus B anisteriopsis . The liana is, accord- 
ingly, now correctly called B anisteriopsis Caapi (Spruce 
ex Grisebach) Morton. * 

Even a century ago, Spruce's thinking was, at least in 
part, along chemotaxonomical directions. He mused: 



*Banisteriopsis Caapi {Spr. ex Griseb .) Morton in 

Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21 (1931) 48">. 

Banisteria Caapi Spruce ex Grisebach in Martius Fl. 

liras. 12, pt. 1 (18.>8) 48. 

[ 122 ] 



Plate XXIX 



BANISTERIOPSIS 



Octczp 



X 



(Spruce ex Griseb.) Mortorv 




1, flowering branch, about h X. 2, flower, about 2-j X . 3, fruit, 



somewhat lamer than A- 




\ « 



"My surprise arose from the fact that there was no nar- 
cotic malpighia on record, nor indeed any species of that 
order with strong medicinal properties of any kind. 
Byrsonima . . . includes many species . . . their bark 
abounds in tannins . . . Another genus — Bunchosia . . . 
of the Andes ... is described in books as poisonous, and 
if it be really so, then it is the only instance, so far as I 
know, of the existence of any hurtful principle in the 
entire family . . . excepting . . . caapi. " "Yet," he 
prophetically remarked "strong poisons may lurk undis- 
covered in many others of the order, which is very large 
. . . ; and the closely allied soapworts (Sapindaceae) 
contain strong narcotic poisons, especially in the genus 

Paullinia. " 

In many ways, Spruce was ahead of his times. In 
those years, there was little liaison between botanical 
explorers and chemists of the laboratory. Botanists sel- 
dom gathered material for phytochemical study, and in 
Spruce's ease the great distance and isolation of his scene 
of held work and the primitiveness and absence of nor- 
mal communications one might believe would have made 
it impracticable or impossible for him to gather material 
in bulk for pharmaceutical specialists. Notwithstanding 
these drawbacks, Spruce did so enrich science, but, like 
so many collectors even in modern times, he was frus- 
trated in his attempt. 

*'l obtained a good many pieces of stem [from the 
type plant of Banisteria Caapi], dried them carefully, 
and packed them in a large box, which contained the 
botanical [herbarium] specimens, and dispatched them 
down the river for England in March 1853. The man 
who took that box and four others on freight, in a large 
new boat he had built on the Uaupes, was seized for debt 
when about half-way down the Rio Negro, and his boat 



and all its contents confiscated. My boxes were thrown 

[ 124 ] 



Plate XXX 




RICHARD SPRUCE 



Drawn by Ij.mkk \V. Smith 



[ 1 -'•■ 



aside in a hut, with only the damp earth for floor, and 
remained there many months, when my friend Senhor 
Henrique Antonij of Manaos . . . succeeded in redeem- 
ing them and getting them sent to the port of Para. 
When Mr. Bent ham came to open them in England, 
he found the contents somewhat injured by damp and 

mould, and the sheets of specimens near the 



h 



boxes unite ruined. The 1) 



pr 



bly have quite lost its virtue from the same 
cause, and I do not know that it was ever analyzed 
chemically; but some portion of it should be in the Kew 
Museum at this daw " 

In an address at t lie III International Pharmacologi- 
cal Congress in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1966, one of the 
authors (2, *2a) said: "One of the most interesting exer- 
cises that I can imagine would be the analysis of a small 

portion of this original Spruce material — it*, indeed, it is 

—with our modern improved 



still 



preservec 



I at K 



ew 



chemical techniques. The active principles of caapi (har- 
mine type alkaloids) might not have deteriorated with 
the mildew, and it is possible that even in this more than 
a century of storage, the alkaloids would he intact."" 

In later discussions of this interesting experiment, we 
resolved to try to follow it up. Accordingly, on Decern- 

her 21, lu<>7, we wrote to Sir George Taylor, Director 

of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and requested a 
small amount of the stem material of Banister iopsis Caapi 

to which Spruce had referred, if it still existed. Shortly 

thereafter, Sir George and Dr. Patrick Brenan, Keeper. 

located this valuable historical collection and, on April 
2(1, 1968, sent a letter informing us that some of this 
material would be made available for chemical study. 
Also enclosed were notes on the material from the entry 
hook for 1854. The label on the specimens states: 
"Stems of Banisteria sp. used with the roots and leaves 

[ 120] 



of Haemadictyon in the preparation of an intoxicating 

beverage called 'Caapi \ Rio Uaupes. R. Spruce 166. 

HB 2712." 

The entry in the notebook reads as follows: 

"Portions of the steins of a Malpighiaceous twiner, 
apparently an undescribed Banisteria (2712 to Bcnth.). 
called by the Indians Caa-pi ; and of the roots and leaves 
of a Haemadictyon, called Caapi-pinima (i.e. 'painted 
caapi') the leaves being veined with red. From these in- 
gredients, the Banisteria entering much more largely 
than the Haemadictyon, is prepared an intoxicating 
drink known to all the natives on the Uaupes by the 
name of Caapi. 

"In the Dabocures (or festas) of the Uaupe Indians, 
the voung men who figure in the dances drink of the 
Caapi 5 or <> times during the night, the dose being a 
cuya, the size of a very small teacup, twice filled. In 
two minutes after drinking it, its effects begin to be ap- 
parent. The Indian turns deadly pale, trembles in every 
limb, and horror is in his aspect; suddenly contrary 
symptoms succeed — he bursts into a perspiration and 
seems popeyed with reckless fury — seizes whatever arms 
are at hand, his murucu, cutlass, or bow and arrows, and 
rushes to the doorway, where he inflicts deadly wounds 
on the ground or doorposts, calling out 'Thus would 1 
do to such a one (naming some one against whom he has 
a grudge) were he within my reach." In the space of 10 
minutes, the effect passes off, and the Indian becomes 
calm, but appears much exhausted/* 

The parts of Spruce's material that reached the De- 
partment of Toxicology, Karolinska Institutet, Stock- 
holm, in April 1908 consisted of five pieces weighing in 
all 26.7 g. (Plate XXXI): 11.5 g. were worked up for 
analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 
other methods as described earlier (3, 4). The yield of 

[ 1 27 



I 




cm 






















> 



y 



Banisteriopsis Caapi (Spr. ex Griseb ) Morton. R. Spruce So. 166. 



alkaloids was found to be 0. 4 per cent. A newly collected 

botanically verified specimen of Banisteriopsis Caapi 

analyzed at the same time was found to contain 0.5 per 
cent alkaloids (5). The latter material contained as de- 
scribed by many authors the main alkaloids harmine, 
harmaline and tetrahydroharmine (6). In addition, it 
contained two minor components that will be described 
separately (5). By contrast, the alkaloid content of the 
Spruce material consisted exclusively of liar mine. This 
was proven beyond any doubt by gas chromatography 
and the combination of gas chromatography-mass spec- 
trometry. As evident from both the gas chromatograms 
(Plate XXXII) and the mass spectra (Plate XXXIII), 
there is complete identity between synthetic harmine 
and the alkaloid in Spruce's material. It is open to 
question whether the stems sent home by Spruce in 
1858 from the beginning contained only harmine or 
perhaps more likely that harmaline and tetrahydrohar- 
mine have with time been transformed into the chemi- 
cally more stable aromatic /3-carboline, harmine. 

Under any circumstances, it is remarkable that 
Spruce's query about the chemical analysis of the ma- 
terial that fared so badly on its way from the Amazonian 
rain forest to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew has 
been answered by modern analytical microtechniques 
115 years later. 

This investigation was supported by grant JV1H 12007- 
03 (Holmstedt) and by grant LM-GM 00071-01 
(Schultes) from the National Institute of Mental 
Health, U.S. Public Health Service. We are indebted 
to Sir George Taylor, Director of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, Surrey, England, for supplying us with 
the material from Spruce's original collection. 



[ 129 ] 



Plati 




II 



i 



l?AN»ST€R;£ SP 
R SPRUCE No 166 



» 



\ 







*. 



10 
MINUTES 



20 



. 



HARMtNE 



C kjckV--^- m ^V* 

* " CM, 







' 



10 
MINUTES 







Gas chromato^ram of alkaloid fraction from Spruce's material and 
reference substance. Conditions: Column 2 m ; i.d. 8.2 mm ; 3/< 
OV-17 on 100-120 mesh Gas Chrom P ; temp. 230°. 



[ 130] 



Plate XXXIII 



100 



90 



i/> 



<D 



80 



70 



60 



50 



0> 40 



a: 



30 



20 



10 



a* 






100 



90 



80 



70 



£ 00 



50 - 



o> 40 



50 - 



20 



10 



<v 



CC 



BANISTERIA 
R SPRUCE 



SP 
No. 166 



- 




m/e 





m/e 

Mass spectra of peaks shown in Plate XXXII. Conditions as 
described in Plate XXXII. 



[131] 



REFERENCES 



1. Spruce, R. A botanist on the Andes and Amazon, [Ed. A.R. Wal- 
lace] Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London, c 2 (1908) 414-480. 



J. Schultes, R.E. Some impacts of Spruce's Amazon explorations 
on modern phytochemical research." Rhodora 70 ( 1 9(J8) SI 3-389. 



2a. Schultes, R.E. The impact of Spruce's Amazon explorations on 
modern phytochemical research." Ciencia e Cultura 20 (l968) 37- 
49. 



3. Holmstedt, B. and J.E. Lindgren in Ethnopharmacologic search for 
psychoactive drugs. [Ed. D. Efron] U.S. Public Health Service 
Publ. No. 1645 (1967) 339-37:5. 



k Agurell, S., R. Holmstedt, J.E. Lindgren and R.E. Schultes 
I eta Che mica Scandinavica. In press. 



5. Agurell, S. and J.E. Lindgren. To be published. 



6. Deulofeu, V. in Ethnopharmacologic search for psychoactive drugs. 
[Ed. D. Efron] U.S. Public Health Service Publ. Xo. 1645 (1967) 
393-402. 



[ 132] 



DK PLANTIS TOXICARIIS E MUNDO 

NOVO TROPICALE COMMENTATIONES [\ 

by 

Richard Evans Schultes 



T 



In continuation of a series of articles on toxic plants 
of the New World tropics, this contribution will call 
attention to a number of species with miscellaneous in- 
teresting ethnobotanical notes as to their use but which, 
for the most part, have not been subjected to phyto- 
chemical examination. 

Most of the data reported in the following pages were 
gathered during field work which I have carried out in 
the American tropics or which my students have reported 
as a result of their ethnobotanical studies in sundry parts 

of Latin America. 

It will be clear to phytochemists that the analysis of 
some of the species enumerated may be of special inter- 
est, since a number of the plants belong to cenera or 
even families from which biodynamic constiti 
not hitherto been isolated. 



&> 



The current phases of this research 
i New World tropics, including tl 
blication of most of the elates in 



e preparation and 
this contribution, 



are supported by a grant from the National Institutes oi 
Health (No. LM-GB 00071-01). The line drawings have 
been prepared by the late Mr. John Stan well- Fletcher 
and by Mr. Gordon W. Dillon, Mr. Joshua B. Clark and 
Miss Irene Brady. 

[133] 



The enumeration of families follows the Engler-Prantl 



system. 



Garryackak 



Garrya laurifolia (Hartw.) Bentham var. macro- 
phylla (Hartw.) Wangerin in Pflanzenr. 4, Fam. 56a 

(1910) 16. 

Mexico: Kstado de Oaxaca, Cerro Zempoaltepetl, eastern slope. 
Alt. 2600m. "Very large shrub along forest trails." May 20, 1939. 
U.K. Schultes 547. 



The Mije Indians living near the base of Cerro Zem- 
poaltepetl employ the leaves and stems in the form of a 
decoction as a febrifuge, but when taken in excess this 



medicine reputedly causes a burning sensation in the di- 



d a strong trembling of the hand 



Garrya laurifolia, known in Mexico as cuauhchich 



m 



form 



ment of chronic diarrhoea. S 



have been made, and it has been established that the 
bark infusion kills rabbits by paralysis of the respiratory 
centres(Martinez, M. : "Plantas medicinales de Mexico" 
ed. 4 (1959) 93-90)- Amongst other constituents, it is 
said to contain a bitter alkaloid principle, garryine, a 
resin, tannic acid and a compound possibly of glycosidal 
nature. Several alkaloids have been isolated from the 
genus Garry (i, including G. laurifolia var. macrophylla 
(Herissey, H. and C. Lebas in Journ. Pharm. Chim. 2 
(1910) 490; Oneto, J.F. in Journ. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 
35 (1940) 204). 

Annonaceae 



Unonopsis veneficiorum (Mart.) B.E. Fries in 



Acta Hort. Berg. 12 (1937) 238. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Rio Guamues, Santa Rosa. 
Primary forest. Small tree more or less 20 ft. Bark of root is used 
in preparation of curare." November 26, 19o6. II. V. Pinkley 558. 

I 134] 



Plate XXXIX 



T 



UN0N0PS1S venificiorum (Mart) RE.Fr 




1, habit, approximately j X. ^2, flower, approximately 2$ X. 3, immature 
fruits, approximately 2| X. 4 and 5, seed, approximately natural size. 6, 
fruits, approximately ^ > . 



Mr. Homer V. Pinkley, one of my graduate students 
who spent more than a year in ethnobotanieal studies 
amongst the Koian Indians of Ecuador and Colombia, 
reports that the root of this small tree, known in Kofan 
as i-te-si-fan-di, is the source of a curare preparation of 

the tribe. 

This species was first reported as an arrow poison in- 



redient by Martins (Spix, J. 15. and K.F.I). Martius 
"Reise in Brasilien" (1831) 1237), who stated that the 
Juri, Mirana and other Indians of the Rio Japura (Rio 
Caqueta) and Rio Negro of Colombia and Brazil so em- 
ployed it. Unonopsis veneficiorum has been reported as 

containing bisbenzvlisoquinoline alkaloids ( IIe<Tiauer. 



11. "Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen" 3 (1 ( .M!4) 118). 
Mr. James \V. Walker of Hie Gray Herbarium of 

Harvard University has identified the collection Pinkley 



558. 



CONNARACEAE 



The chemistry of the Connaraceae is very poorly 
known and most certainly represents one of the areas in 
the angiosperms where phytochemists should concen- 
trate attention. Dve materials and balsamic resins are 



fi 



and bark of 



II 



from the fruit, seeds 

emical nature is not 

(1964) 54.>-54(;. As 



a family very closely allied to the Leguminosae, the 

Connaraceae should be expected to nossess a .o-nod rmm- 



b 



My identification of the connaraceous species men- 



d 



d bv Dr. Gilian T 



Trance of the New York Hotanical Gard 



Connarus opacus Schellenb er g \i\ Engler Pflanzeni 

4, Fain. 127 (1938) 244. 

[ 1 36 ] 



Plate XXXV 




Habit, approximately ■£ X. 



Colombia: Comisaria del Vaupes, Rio Kuduyari, headwaters. 'Li- 
ana. Fruits dull red. Bark and leaves used by Kubeofor fish poison. " 

August 16, 1960. R.E. Schultes 22719. 

This extensive vine, which is relatively abundant in the 
headwaters of the Rio Kuduyari as an element of the 
riverside vegetation, provides one of the usual fish poi- 
sons employed in still water by the Kubeo Indians. The 
root and stem bark and leaves are mixed together, 

crushed, placed in a bag and drawn slowly through the 
water. 

A spot test for alkaloids, made on the dried leaves of 
this collection, was negative. Alkaloids have apparently 
never been reported from any species of the Connaraceae 
(Willaman, J. J. and B.G. Schubert: "Alkaloid-bearing 
plants and their contained alkaloids*' Techn. Bull. No. 
1234, U.S.D.A. (1961). 

The collection Schultes 22719 is apparently the first 
record of this species from Colombia. The type Mas col- 
lected in British Guiana by Schomburgk. 

Connarus Schultesii Standley ex Schultes in Bot. 

Mus. Lean., Harvard Univ. 9 (1941) 17*3, t. 4. 

Mexico: Estadode Oaxaca, San Juan Lalana, Distrito de Choapam. 



Alt. 700 in. A tangled vine growing on large forest trees, mountain 
southeast of Lalana. Stems exude red sap upon breaking." May 9, 
1939. R.E. Schultes et B.P. Reko 883. 

Known only from the type collection, this species has 
been employed by the Chinantec Indians as a taenifuge. 
The extremely bitter red sap that exudes from the stems 
acts in the expulsion of certain intestinal parasites, but 
it is reputedly toxic in large doses. Since the species is 



ted by the natives to be local, its use in folk-mcd 



be restricted. It 



A trie 



d (Heckel, E 



F. Schlagenhauffen in Ann. Fac. Sci. Marseilles (>, f 
'2 (1897) 1-26). The only other species recorded fi 

[ 138 ] 



Plate XXXVI 




_. 



-• • v.» . 



1, fruiting branch, approximately | X. 2, fruit, enlarged approximately If X 



Mexico — Connarus lentiginosus Brandg. of Chiapas — is 
not known to be utilized medicinally, but ethnobotanical 
studies have not been pursued in the region. 

The red sap of Connarus Schultc.su may contain color- 
ing constituents, but the Chinantecs and neighboring 
Zapotecs apparently do not make use of them as a dye. 



Connarus Sprucei Baker in Martius Fl. Bras. 14, 
pt. 2 (1871) 187. 

Colombia : Comisariadel Vaupes, Itio Kuduyari, near mouth. "Vine. 
Flowers white. Bark employed as fish poison." August 12, 1960. 
U.K. Schultes 22576. 



The bark of the root and stem of this riverside liana 
is employed by the Kubeo Indians as a fish poison. 

Spot tests for alkaloids, made on the bark of the spe- 
cies, proved to be negative. 



Rourea glabra Humboldt, Bonplandet Kunth. Nov. 



Gen. et Sp. 7 (1825) 41. 

Colombia: Comisariadel Amazonas, Rio Karaparana, between the 
mouth and El Encanto. Alt. about 150 m. "Small tree. Fruit red 



with blackish blue husk." May 22-28, 194-2. R.E. Schultes <}$■!!. 



The Witoto Indians use the root and stem bark of 
Rourea glabra as a fish poison. This small tree or vine is 
rather common in pockets along the flood-banks of the 
Rio Karaparana. Although it is a widespread species, 



Central America, the West Indies and 



S 



m to have been reported 



for it beyond the employment of a decoction as a gargle in 
treating catarrhal conditions (Schellenberg, loc. cit. 214). 
Two vernacular names for the plant in Brazil — mat a ca- 
chorro ("dog killer") and mat a ncsrro ("ne</ro killer") — 



do, however, suggest poisonous properties. The fruit and 
root bark of Rourea ereeta (Blanco) Merr., an Asiatic 
species, are reputedly poisonous to dogs and other car- 

[ 140 ] 



Plate XXXVII 




KOUREA glabra H.RK 



A, 




Habit, approximately -j X 



ous animals (Brill, H.C. and A.M. Well in Ph 

Journ. Sci. 12A (1917) 171). A steroidal sanoere 



has been lbund 



gs of Rourca Ug 



lata Bak. of Brazil (Altman, R. F. A. in Nature 17.*3 
(1954) 1098). 

ElJPHORBIACEAE 

Phyllanthus lathyroides Humboldt, Bonpland et 
Kunth Nov. Gen. et Sp. 2 (1817) 110. 

Mexico: Estado de Oaxaca, Distrito de Teotitlan, Huautla de 
Jimenez. August S, 1938. U.K. Schultes et B.P. Reko 1,11. 



This common roadside weed, called shka-nin-du 
("eruption plant**) in the Mazatec Indian language, has 
medicinal properties, according to the natives. A decoc- 
tion of the leaves is used as a wash for eye infections, 
such as conjunctivitis. A poultice of moistened leaves is 
applied to boils, hence the Indian name of the plant. A 
strongly emetic tea is, likewise, prepared from the leaves. 



Flacourtiaceae 
Lunania parviflora Spruce ex Bentham in .lourn. 

Linn. Soe. 5, Suppl. 2 (1861) 90. 

Columbia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Trapecio Amazonico, Rio Lore- 
toyacu. September 1946. U.K. Schultes et G.A. Black 83 16. 



1 ne Tikuna Indians report that the root of Lunania 

rviflora is toxic and was formerly powdered and added 
cooked food for the purpose of killing enemies or mi- 
nted visitors from foreiun tribes. 



Thymelaeaceae 
Schoenobiblus peruvianus Standley in Field 

Mus. Publ. Bot. 11 (1936) 169. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Itio Sucumbios (San Miguel), 
Conejo y alrededores, frente a la Quebrada Conejo. "Large shrub. 
Hoot furnishes one of the poisons for curare." April 1-5, 1942. It. E. 

[ 142 ] 



Plate 




XVI 1 1 



SCHOENOBIBLUS 



peruvianus 



Standi. 




JBC 



:\ 



I, habit, approximately g X. 2, leaf and bractlet, approximately 2 X. 3, 
flower, approximately 4 X. 4, flower, approximately 6 X. 5, fruit, approxi- 



mately 



;$ 



X. 



Schultes 8521. — 'Poison. Fruits used in making curare. Shrub." April 

2-5, 1942. Schultes 8655. — Santa Rosa y alrededores. "Roots and 
fruits used in Kofan curare preparation." April 7-8, 1942. Schultes 
8618. — Rio Guanines, Santa Rosa. Alt. 990 ft. "Low and swampy 
area. Plant \l ft. tall. Fruit bright orange. Root and fruit used in 
arrow poison; also sometimes used as a fish poison." September 6, 

1966. //./'. Pinkley 485. 

In 1941), Schultes (in Hot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 
13 (1949) 285-289) reported the use of Schoenobiblus 



Peruvian us as " 



d 



poisons of the Kofan Indians of the Putumavo" in Co- 
lombia along the Ecuadorian border. The roots and the 
fruits are employed. 

Mr. Pinkley, as a result of his year-long ethnobotanical 

studies amongst the Kofan Indians, has been able to 



de a detailed study of th 



f 



a report of which will be published elsewhere. His record 
that the plant is sometimes utilized as a fish poison 
extends our knowledge of its toxic activity and may be 
of interest chemically, inasmuch as the identity of the 
active principle is, as yet, unknown. 

The identification of the specimens cited above has 
been checked by Dr. Loren 1. Nevling of the Arnold 



Arb 



Styracaceae 



1 5 < ) . 



Styrax Tessmannii Perkins in Notizbl. 10 (11)28) 



Colombia : Comisaria del Amazonas, Trapecio Amazonico, Rio Lore- 
toyacn. Tikuna name: me-re-ta-kee. March 1946. R.E. Schultes 7144. 

According to Tikuna Indians living along the Kio 
Loretoyacu, the aromatic resin from the stems of Styrax 
Tessmannii is poisonous when ingested. This has appar- 
ently not hitherto been reported, but, in view of persist- 
ent information to this effect, it bears phytochemical 
investigation. 

[ 14+ ] 



Plate XXXIX 




I, habit of flowering branch, approximately |X. 2, habit of fruiting branch, 
approximately |X. 8, flower, approximately 2^ X . 4, fruit, approximately h X . 



Gextianaceae 



Chelonanthus alatus (Aubl.) Pullc Enum. Vase. 



PI. Surinam (1906) ;37(>. 

Mexico: Kstado de Oaxaca, Distrito de Cuicatlan, between San 
Juan Zautla and Teutila. June 30, 1939. R.E. Schultes 731.— Distrito 
de Choapam, San Juan Lalana. May 3, 1939. R. E. Schultes et II. P. 
Reko 78,5. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Karaparana, between the 
mouth and El Encanto. May 22-28, 194-2. R.E. Schultes 3805.— 
Comisaria del Vaupes, Rio Vaupes, Mitiiand vicinity. September 27- 

October -20, 1966. R.E. Schultes, R.F. Raffaufei I). Soejarto 24246a 

Schultes, Raffaufet Soejarto -" r >^>. 

Peru: Departamento de Loreto, Itio Napo, Ne^ro Urco. August 
1(5, 1966. A'. 7'. Martinet C.A. Lau-Cam 1286.— Martin et Lau-Cam 

1290. 



The Chinantecs in the Districts of Choapam, Ixtlan 
and Cuicatlan, Oaxaca, state that the root of Chelonan- 
thus alatus is bitter and is used in decoction as a febri- 
fuge, for cramps and indigestion, and to treat sores in 
the mouth. It lias uses similar to those of Lisianthus 
nigrescens reported below. Applications based on its 
bitter principles are recorded from French Guiana 

(Meckel, E. "Les plantes medicinales et toxiques de la 
Guyane Francaise" (1897) 57). Aublet, who described 
the concept, reported its employment in folk medicine 
in French Guiana as early as 1775 (Aublet, J.B.C.F. 
"Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Franchise" 1 (1775) 

•20.5), stating: "The whole plant is bitter. It is used to 
treat obstructions, and I have employed it for this pur- 
pose with success*'. 

The Witoto Indians of Amazonian Colombia, who 
refer to the plant as ho-ko- so- go-no, dry and pulverize the 
leaves and flowers for powdering clothing and bedding 
to ward off insects. 

Field spot tests on fresh material in Colombia have 
indicated that no alkaloids are present in the plant. 

[ 146 ] 



Plate XL 




CHELONANTHUS 

a latus 



(Aubl)Pulle 










Habit, approximately 5 X. Flower dissected, approximately natural size. 
Anther, approximately 64 X. 



Several specimens collected in eastern Peru {Martin 
et Lau-Cam 1286 and 1290) reported a vernacular name 
amaraguha which presumably refers to the bitter prin- 
ciples in this plant. Another name employed for this 
species in eastern Peru is una dc tigre. A Peruvian col- 
lection (Meoda 4 153), referable to Chclonanthus chelo- 
noides (L.) Gilg, records that the plant is "used as a 
remedy for worm- infested wounds in cattle". 



Lisianthus nigrescens Chamisso et Schlechi endahl 
in Linnaea 9 (18.-J1) i388. 

Mkxico: Kstado de Oaxaca, Distrito de Choapam, Santiago Zaca- 
tepec. U.K. Schultes ~> U f . — Between Choapam and San Juan Comal- 
tepec. June 3, 1939. Schultes 573. — Tonanguilla. June 4, 19S9. 
Schultes 591. — Estado de Oaxaca, Distrito de Choapam, San Juan 



Lalana. May u, 1939. U.K. Schultes et H.P. h'eko 7?^. — Between 
Latani and Choapam. May 13, 1939. Schultes et Eefco 889 . 

This striking, almost black-flowered herb occurs widely 
in northeastern Oaxaca, where it enjoys a variet3 T °^ f°lk 
uses. Amongst the western Chinantecs, a decoction of 
the roots is employed to relieve indigestion and heart- 
burn and as a febrifugal tonic. The neighbouring Maza- 
tecs apparently utilize the plant medicinally only "contra 
el aire". The Mije Indians of Zacatepec apply a poultice 
of the leaves in the treatment of fungal infections of the 
skin of the feet, ankles and hands and value a decoction 
of the root as a bitter and febrifuge. Amongst the Zapo- 
tecs of Villa Alta and vicinity, the black, sticky flowers 
of this species are prepared in a wash employed to remove 
pinolillos (ticks) from the body, a use that is the basis of 

the Zapotec names t>e-rJa and o-zia ("remedy against 
ticks"). 

Lisianthus nigrescens has apparently not hitherto been 
reported as a useful plant, although other species, known 
to possess the bitter properties characteristic of the 
Gentianaceae, find medicinal employment in various 

[ US 1 



Plate XL1 




Habit, approximately £ X. Flower dissected, approximately natural siz 
Anthers, approximately 10 




[ 149 ] 



parts of tropical America. The Brazilian Lisianthus pen- 

du/us Mart., for example, is valued as a bitter tonic and 
febrifuge; several other species are similarly used in 
French Guiana (Heckel, loc. cit. , 57). The insectifugal 
properties of Lisianthvs nigrescens seem not to have been 
recorded, and, in view of a similar use of a species of the 
closely allied genus Chelo?ianthus (see above), they would 
appear to be worth investigating. 

In northeastern Oaxaca, this plant is known amongst 
the Chinantecs as Ice-the. The Mazatecs of Huautla refer 
to it as shka-tee-tso. The Mije call it yerk. 



Gesneriaceae 



Nautilocalyx sp. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Vaupes, Rio Vaupes, savannah at base of 



Cerrode Mitu. September 27-October 20, 19t)6. R.E.Schultes, R.F. 

Raffaufet D. Soejarto 21$11. "Flowers white. Terrestrial." 

A spot test for alkaloids, given on fresh material in 
the field, was positive. This result is noteworthy in view 
of the fact that evidence of alkaloids in this family is 
almost wholly negative. An unknown alkaloid has been 
reported from the European Ramondia pyrcaica Rich. 
Alkaloid spot tests made on several species of Reslcria 
(B. ignea Fritsch : Schultes, Raffauf ct Soejarto 24053) 

and Alloplectus (A. semicordatus P. et E. : Schultes, 
Raffaufet Soejarto 24225) from the Colombian Amazon 
were negative. 

The collection Schultes, Raffauf ct Soejarto 24211 is 
sterile. It has been identified to genus by Dr. H. Emery 
Moore of the Bailey Hortorium. 



RriJIACEAK 



Duroia />. fiL 

Although this genus has apparently not been recorded 
as toxic, the number of reports from natives affirming 

[151] 



the poisonous properties of the seeds of several species, 
all reports from widely separated localities, calls attention 
once again to the need for phytochemical studies guided 
by ethnobotanical observations. 



Duroia hirsuta (P. et E.) K. Schumann in Martius 

Fl. Bras. G, pt. (> (1889) 367. 

Colombia: Departamento del Cauca, Puerto Limon, bosques en el 
lado caucano del Rio Caqueta* Alt. 300 m. "Small tree. Bark, tied 
on arm, forms blisters, Solimdn." February 28-29, 1942. R.E. Schultes 
>>>20. — Comisaria del Putumayo, Rio Sucambios, Conejo and vicinity. 



» . . 



Kof an = sha-ka-ker-nd-$e" April 2-5, 1942. — Comisaria del Ama- 
zonas, Rio Caucaya, between Puerto Jaramillo and Rio Putumayo. 
May 16, 191-2. R.E. Schultes 8112.— Comisaria del Vaupt's, Rio Apa- 
poris, near confluence of A jaju and Macaya. Solimdn. "January 1944. 
G. Gutierrez et R.E. Schultes 612. — Intendencia del Meta, Sabanas 
de San Juan de Arama, margen izquierda del Rio Guejar, alrededores 
de aterrizaje Los Micos." Alt. about 500 m. "Arbolito de 3 m. de 
alto. Comiin en bosque." December 5-20, 1950. J.M. Idrobo et R.E. 
Se/tu/tes 59 L. 



The type collection of Duroia hirsuta was made i 
Yillavicencio, Colombia. Idrobo et Schultes 594, consc 
quently, from near the town of Villavieencio, may b 
considered topotypical. 

Amongst many Indians of the Colombian Amazo 
and Putumayo — especially the Kofan, Siona, Witot 



d 



bark of this small tree is em 



ployed to make bluish black markings on arms and legs. 
Strips of the freshly removed, pliable bark are tied onto 
the arm or leg with the inner surface of the bark touch- 



ing the skin. After several hours or half a day, it is re- 
moved. Blisters and a localized red swelling: result in 
another two to three hours. When this condition dis- 
appears, a dark bund persists and lasts for several weeks, 
even occasionally for several months. There have appar- 
ently been no chemical analyses directed towards a dis- 
covery of the caustic principle in Duroia hirsuta. 

[ 152] 



Plate 




LI I 




1 and 2, habit, approximately 5 X. 3, flower, approximately 1 4 X. 



This small tree, known throughout eastern Colombia 
:is solimdn, is believed by the Indians to "poison"' other 
plants. Lt is found usually in colonies of up to twenty 
individuals in the forest, and invariably nothing grows 
underneath the tree, except perhaps Selaginella (see 
photograph, Plate XV LI I, lower figure, in Bot. JMus. 



Leafl., Harvard Univ. 1.5(1951)). The natives explain 
this curious ecological phenomenon of the absence of 
vegetation by saying that the roots of Duroia hirsuta 



. . • * • 



poison the other plants. The real reason may b 
ted with the presence in Duroia hirsuta of s\ 
irnodes which are always inhabited by ants. 



Duroia kotchubaeoides Steyermark in Mem. N. Y. 

Hot. Card. 12 (1965) 201. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Vaupes, Rio Guainia, Puerto Colombia 
(opposite Venezuelan town of Maroa) and vicinity. Alt. about 800- 



850 ft. "Small tree. Flowers]white." October Si-November 2, 1952. 
R.E. Schultes, R.I:. I). Baker et I. Cabrera 18211. 

Amongst the inhabitants of the Rio Guainia, the seeds 

of Duroia kotchubaeoides are held to be poisonous when 
eaten. 

Schultes, Baker et Cabrera 18211 is the type collection 
of this curious species. It is known only from one other 
collection made from the upper Orinoco in Venezuela. 
The species appears to be a restricted endemic. 



Duroia petiolaris (Spr.) Hooker fil. ex K.Schumann 

in Martius Fl. Hras. 6, pt. (> (1889) 364. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Trapecio Amazonico, Rio Lore- 

toyacu. AH. about 100 m. "Bush. Flowers wliite. " October, 1945. 

R.E. Schultes 6727.— November '2, 1946. G.A. Black et R.E. Schultes 
46-295. 

The Tikuna Indians and the Brazilian rubber tappers 
of the Trapecio Amazonico assert that the seeds of this 
bush or small tree are extremely dangerous when eaten. 

154 1 



Plate XLI1I 




land 2, habit, approximately \ . 3, fruit dissected, approximately 3 
4, section of leaf greatly enlarged. 






Duroia saccifera [3 fart.) Hooker fil. ex K. Schu- 
mann in Martins Fl. Bras. 6, pt.6 (1889) 362, t.UG, fig. 1. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Apaporis, Soratania and 
vicinity. "Tree 10 in. tall." March 26, 1952. R.E. Schultes et I. 
Cabrera 16068. 



The natives in the middle course of the Rio Apaporis 
state that the seeds of this small forest tree are toxic 
when ingested. 

This collection extends the known range of Duroia 
saccifera into the Amazonian basin of Colombia; it has 
hitherto been known from Amazonian Brazil and the 

llio Guainia area of Venezuela. 



Duroia Sprucei Rusby Descr. New Sp. S. Am. PI. 

(10-20) 133. 

Colombia : Comisaria del Amazonas, Trapecio Amazonieo, Rio I.ore- 
toyacu. "Small tree. Flood bank." May, 1946. R.E. Schultes 7127. 
— Rio Apaporis, Soratama, above mouth of Rio Kananari. June IS, 
1951. R.E, Schultes et I. Cabrera 126L5. 



The seeds of this small tree have the reputation 
amongst the natives of the Rio Apaporis of being poison- 
ous to eat. 

The type of Duroia Sprucei was collected in Vene- 
zuela. The collections cited above extend the known 
range of the species significantly southwestward. 



Psychotria L. 

So far as the available chemical literature is concerned, 
there is little if any indication that the seeds and fruits 
of species of Psychotria would be toxic when ingested 
by man. Reports to this effect, however, are so frequent 
and are scattered over such a wide area that phvtochenri- 
cal studies based upon these ethnobotanical observations 



are justified. 



[ i"><;] 



Plate XLI\ 



T 




1 , habit, approximately \ X . 2, flower in bud, approximately 3j X. 3, flower 
opened, approximately %\ X. 



Psychotria carthaginensis Jacquin Enum. PI. 

Carib. (1760) 1(>. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Apaporis, Raudal Yaya- 

eopi (La Playa) and vicinity. Quartzite base. Alt. about 800 ft. 
"Rush. Flowers white." A|)ril 15, 195'-'. R.E. Schultes et I. Cabrera 

16203. — "Rush. Fruit red. On rocks of bank. Makuna name icj/- 

soo-d&." August 18, 195^2. Schultes et Cabrera 16890. 



The Makuna Indians assert that the fruits of this 
shrub, if eaten, cause a poisoning that results in several 
days of weakness, fevers, nausea and disturbed vision. 

Psychotria involucrata Swartz Prodr. Veg. Tnd. 
Occ. (1788) 45. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Amazonas, Leticia and 
vicinity. September HMO. R.E. Schultes S231. — Rio Apaporis, Sora- 
tama, between Rio Pacoa and Rio Kananari. "Rush, Highland." 
August 20, 1916. R.E. Schultes et I. Cabrera 13629. 



The Tikuna Indians of the Leticia region and the 
Makunas of the Rio Apaporis both consider the fruits 
of Psychotria involucrata poisonous when ingested. 



Psychotria nudiceps Standley in Field Mus. Publ. 

Hot. 8 (11)81) 378. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Trapecio Amazonico, Rio Lo- 
retoyacu. October 1946. R.E. Schultes 8 408. 

It is a commonly accepted belief amongst the rubber 

tappers in this part of Colombia and adjacent Peru and 
Brazil that the fruits of Psychotria nudiceps are toxic 
when eaten. 

Psychotria psychotriaefolia (Seem.) Standley in 

Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 18 (1916) 138. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Mocoa and vicinity. "Leaves 
used with yaje/' No date. C. Nararyo s.n. 

Ecuador: Provincia del Napo, Rio Aguarico, Dureno. Alt. about 



800 ft. Area near river and Hood region. Shrub leaves and fruit 
used in preparation of the yaje nareotic as an admixture with Banis- 

teriopsis." Alt. 800 ft. May 29, 1966, //./'. Pinkley 225 ; 285 . 

[ 158 ] 



Plate XL\ 



T 




1 and 2, habit, approximately 2 X. 

[ 159 ] 



Plate XL VI 




1 and c 2, habit, approximately -g- X. 3, dried inflorescence, approximately 3^ X. 

[ 161 ] 



Plate XL VI I 



PSYCHOTR1A 

psychotriae folia 

(Seem.) Standi. 



i 



i 
I 

I 



X 






Habit, approximately natural size. Flower, approximately 5 X. Dissected 
corolla, approximately 5 X. Fruit, approximately 4 X. Cross section of fruit, 
approximately 4$ X. 

[ 163 J 



The earliest report of the use of a Psychotria as an 
additive to "fortify" the hallucinogenic yaje drink pre- 
pared basically from B anisteriopsis Caapi or 11. inebrians 
was made in 1067 (Schultes, R. E. in Efron (ed. ) "Ethno- 
pharmacologic search for psychoactive drugs" (1907) 51). 
At that time, the identification could be made only to 
genus. Now, as a result of the field work of Mr. Pinkley 
amongst the Kofan Indians, it is possible to assign the 
species with certainty to Psychotria psychotriaefolia. 
Pinkley has, furthermore, been able to determine the 
sterile collection Naranjo s.n. to this species. 

In the morning, after one of the all-night yaje-sessions 
which he attended amongst the Kofans, Pinkley found, 
in the dregs at the bottom of the clay pot which had 
held the narcotic drink, a sediment containing leaves of 
B anisteriopsis and small rubiaceous fruits. These dregs 
might not have attracted the notice of an untrained ob- 
server. Since, however, Pinkley was especially interested 
in the complexities of yaje-preparation, these specimens 
raised his curiosity and, pursuing the problem ethnobo- 
tanically, he established the fact that Psychotria psycho- 
triaefolia is not an uncommonly used additive in this 



region. 






The Kofans call Psychotria psychotriaefolia by the 
name o-pri-to. One of Pinkley's interesting observations 
indicates that these Indians refer to the "heavenly 
people", with whom they commune during the yaje in- 
toxication, by the same term o-pri-to. He further re- 
ports that Mr. M.B. Borman, a missionary-linguist 
studying the Kofan language, states in a letter that both 
B anisteriopsis Rusbyana and Psychotria psychotriaefolia 

are added to the yaje drink prepared from B. Caapi to 
"increase the visions and make them of longer duration". 
These observations serve to emphasize long felt urgen- 
cy for a thorough chemical study of Psychotria and very 
closely related genera, such as Palicourea. 



The collections Pinkley l JJ~> and 235 were identified 
by Dr. John D.Dwyer of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

[ 1(>4 ] 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 13, 1969 Vol, 22, No. 5 



TREE DATURA DRUGS OF THE 

COLOMBIAN SIBUNDOV 1 

BY 

Mklvin L. Bristol 2 



In southernmost Colombia high on the eastern flank of 
the Andean cordillera lies a small and isolated montane 
basin, the Valley of Sibundoy (Plate XLVI LL). Several 
thousand Kamsa-speaking Sibundoy and three Inga- 
speaking groups have inhabited the Valley for several 
centuries, perhaps for much longer. f The collapsing agri- 
cultural terraces clearly visible at many places on the 
valley sides indicate a populous pre-hispanic occupation, 
and the Sibundoy believe that their ancestors have lived 
in the Valley from very early times. As yet, however, 
there is no evidence linking the early terrace builders 
with the Sibundoy or with any other native group in 
southern Colombia. 

Despite the apparent isolation of the Valley of Sibun- 
doy, the natives have probably always been in contact 
with a diversity of other aboriginals. Today, as in the 
Sixteenth Century, there are three trails leading out of 
the Valley to the east, west and north. Two of these 
have recently been supplanted, for a road now connects 
the highland capital of Pasto twenty miles to the west 

Received for publication January, 1968. 
2 H. L. Lvon Arboretum, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. 



r 



Inga is one of the northernmost Quechua dialects (9, 24). 

[ 105 



with Mocoa in the eastern lowlands. The third, and 

shortest trail, connecting the Valley with the Rio Juan- 

ambu drainage to the north, is probably little changed 

from 1801 when Humboldt and Ronpland traversed it 

twice, or from 1,541 when Hernan Perez de Quesada 

fled homeward along it from his wretched search for 
El Dorado. 

During the long period of relative isolation, a great 

variety of curious cultivated plants were brought into 
the Valley. Some are of scant importance today and may 
never have enjoyed a wide appreciation among the Val- 
ley's inhabitants. Others, the predominant food, medi- 
cinal and narcotic plants, have come to assume very great 
importance in the economic and social life of the natives. 
Certain plants, known nowhere else, have evolved in the 
Valley under the influences of cultivation. Such has 
come to pass with the tree Datura drugs. 

The genus Datura consists of eight to twelve herba- 
ceous species (2, 3, 28), with their centre of diversity 
in Mexico and southwestern United States: and three 
or more (7) to fourteen (28) arborescent species centered 
in the northern Andes. In the absence of a modern and 
comprehensive revision of the genus, Safford's account 
of 1921 has been widely accepted. However, were we to 
continue employing his species concept today, the diver- 
sity of herbarium material available now would allow us 
to define thirty or more "species" of tree Daturas (sect. 
Brugmansia) alone. Recently, 1 have pointed out that 
almost all tree Daturas belong to one of three species 
and that the few remaining plants are probably hybrid 
or aberrant individuals (7). The variability expressed in 
the tree Daturas as a group has been enhanced through 
their cultivation by many native peoples; in fact, their 

absence from any natural vegetation implies that their 
recent evolution has taken place entirely under man's 
influences. 

[ 166 ] 



Plate XLVIll 




COLOMBIA 






. 



Valley of Sibundoy 

Comisana Especial del Putumayo, Colombia 









ROAD 



TRAIL 



PASTURE 



MARf>i 









Vt l // 












Sibundoy 



Mococ 



\V' 



To Paste 




2 

J. 



3 

.1 



Valley of Sibundoy, showing the area inhabited today by the Sibun- 
doy Indians. (Areas at the western and southwestern margins of the 
Valley inhabited by Colon, Santiagueiio and Sanandresefio Indians 
are omitted.) 



In the Valley of Sibundoy, most of the Daturas be- 
long to the speeies Datura Candida (Pers.) SafF. , though 
I), sanguinea R. &; P. is also present. They are much 
planted by the natives for ornament in hedge rows, in 
house yards and in the multi-purpose gardens; and the 
abundance of huge, white flowers which appear four 
times annually make them the principal visual local point 
everywhere. Containing atropine and hyoscyamine, these 
bar r acker as ( 4 inebriants*) have been used variously by the 
natives both as psychotropic and medicinal preparations. 
While one of the cultivars, 'Buyes\ is frequently seen 
throughout the inhabited parts of the Valley, most of 
the cultivars are encountered only very infrequently. So 
far as I am aware, the unique Daturas of the Valley were 
not known to outsiders until Hernando Garcia-Barriffa 
found them in 198.). 

Frequent suggestions that the Sibundoy tree Daturas 
are infected by viruses has focused attention on this as a 
major cause of the peculiar leaves by which several of the 
cultivars are recognized (3, 22, 35, 36). However, early 
in the course of my thirteen months of observations in the 
Valley in 1902 03, I realized that each cultivar is geneti- 
cally distinct, quite apart from the possible influence of 
viruses on the leaves. Differences amonsr the cultivars 



which 1 believe to be genetic lie in the morphology of the 
flowers and fruit, in the incidence of chromosomal inver- 
sions and in the amount of aborted pollen. Some of the 
unique leaves are also reflections of genetic uniqueness 
and not of virus infection. In recognition of ethnomedi- 



cal, pharmacologic, chemical and phytopathologic inter- 
est in the Sibundoy tree Daturas, an important objective 
of my study has been to understand their morphologic 
and cytologic variability, to distinguish among them, 
and to define them. 



[168] 



Variation in Datura Candida i Buyes > 

Most specimens of Daturas in the Valley of Sibundoy 
are called buyes borrachcra by the Kamsa-speaking Sibun- 
doy, or D. Candida cv. Buyes as described below. They 
represent several, or possibly many, genetic lines, as 
evidenced by marked differences in the size and shape of 
the flowers. At the present time, however, the natives 
are little, if at all, aware of these variations, and they do 
not discriminate verbally within their concept of buyes 
borrachcra. For later purposes of comparison, it will be 
helpful here to record the limits of variation of D. Can- 
dida 'Buyes' in the Valley of Sibundoy. To this end, a 
representative sample of leaves and flowers was taken 
from twenty-eight trees scattered throughout the area of 
the Valley inhabited by the Sibundoy. With the addition 
of other collections, there are thirty-seven trees repre- 
sented, to give an indication of the range of variability of 
this cultivar. Table I gives the range of variation in J). 
Candida 'Buyes' for six of the eight characters found to 
be most useful in distinguishing the nine Sibundoy culti- 
vars of D. Candida. 

Tablk I. Range of variation in D. Candida 'Buyes' (meas. in mm.). 















median 


Leaf ratio (W/L) 








.346- 


.577 


.160 


Calyx length 








85- 


161 


128 


Corolla length 








196- 


- 293 


252 


Stamen length (inck 


iding 


the 




132- 


■ 199 


165 


adnation of filamer 


it to 


coroll; 











Anther length 








30- 


41 


35 


Pistil length 








143- 


• 212 


175 



The most conspicuous feature of these trees is certainly 
the brilliant white corolla, but despite this, its variation 
in size has no formal recognition among the Sibundoy. 
In many flowers, the edge of the corolla between the 
lobes is emarginate, but in some it is straight or well 

[109] 



rounded. Counts of aborted pollen in six plants ranged 
from 20.7 to 80.4 per cent. 

I). Candida 'Buyes' is scarcely distinguishable from 
many examples of J). Candida in widely separated areas 
of tropical America. In the characters studied, its range 
of variation is less than that of the species as a whole. 
The rare Sibundoy cultivars of this species have never 
been found outside of the Valley of Sibundoy, and it is 
my assumption that they are all derived, at least in part, 



* 4 



from I). Candida 4 Ruyes\ 



C 7/ ro moso me n u mbers 

Heiser (16) found the chromosome number of JD. Can- 
dida as represented by the collection Heiser 6119 (IND), 
to be n = 12, and Barclay (2,3) found 2n = 24 in I J. Can- 
dida 'Culebra' (Barclay & Schultes 280) and in D. vul- 
canicola A.S. Barclay. 

Preparation of aceto-carmine stained microspore 
mother cells permitted observation of the chromosomes 
after 48-72 hours. The chromosome counts for each cul- 
tivar were made on either one or two plants as indicated 
by the voucher collection numbers in Table II. Seven of 
the nine I). Candida cultivars were examined, and all 
were seen to have a chromosome complement of n = 12. 
All counts were made after metaphase I, most at or 
following metaphase II. The data are summarized in 
Table II. Figure la, illustrates the chromosomes of 
I). Candida 'Culebra*. 

Twelve is the haploid chromosome number of Datura 
sanguinca \\. Si P. (7, 16), of "J), suaveolens" (15), and 
of all the herbaceous species of Datura (1). 

I recently encountered a tree referable to D. Candida 'Aniaron' 
near Las Cruces in southernmost Narino. Thus the question is raised 
as to whether this was brought from the Valley of Sibundoy, or 
whether it is part of an early population of plants from which one or 
more of the Sibundov cultivars might have originated. 

[ 170] 



Plate XLIX 





Datura Candida (Pers.) Saff, cv. Buyes. (Upper) A massive display 
of tfowers. (Lower) Habit of the tree, <rrowin£ j n a cornfield. 



Table II. Chromosome numbers of /). Candida cultivars. 



No. of cells during microsporo^enesis with 



Cultivar 



n= 10 



n=ll 



n = 1 ■> 



n=i:* 



Voucher 
collection* 



Buyes' 

( )cre" 

BiangarT 

A ma ron 
'Quinde' 
* Munchira" 
'Culebra* 



I 



o 



IS 



8 



1 



.) 



3 



1 
1 



1 
S 



48 



oo 



80 
46 

1 22 



I 



1 
5 



1117, 1266 

1267 

1431 

564 

1304, 1438 

12t>8 

1 1 12, 1400 



* On deposit at the Economic Herbarium of Oakes Ames, Harvard Univer- 
sity, and the United States National Herbarium. 



Anaphase bridges 

In four cultivars of I). Candida, the frequency of ana- 
phase L bridges in pollen mother cells was recorded. The 

formation of the anaphase bridge leads to uneven distri- 





0% 



Q 






O 




o 




a 



b 



Figure 1. Chromosomes of /). Candida Culebra\ (a) Metaphase I 
( 500). (b) Anaphase II bridges ( 2000). 

bution of chromosomal material between the first division 
meiotic products and to consequent imbalance in the four 
resulting microspores. Table III summarizes the data 
and includes frequencies of pollen abortion from Table 
1 V for comparison. 

In 'Ocre\ no pollen mother cells were seen with more 
than one anaphase I bridge. 'Hiives* plants showed 
PMC's with one to four bridges, while in 'Culebra' 
there were up to nine bridges between first division 
nuclei. Figure lb, illustrates an occurrence of anaphase 



[ ' 7S 



Table III. Anaphase I bridges formed during microsporogenesis 

in I), candid a cultivars. 



Total No. PMC's % PMC's observed % 

PMC's with A I with A I abnormal 

Cultivar observed bridges bridges pollen 



*~ 



Buyes 213 35 16.4 78. 1 ^ 

'Ocre' 358 64 17.9 .50.8 

'Amaron' 1000 30 3.0 32.8 

'Culebra* 537 97 10.9 S3. 3 



* * 



Buves trees e and /only 



bridges in 'Culebra*. The chromosomal irregularities 
lending to the formation of anaphase bridges are un- 
known. In many eases the bridges were accompanied 
by one or more fragments, implying that chromosomal 
inversions are responsible for some, but not all of the 
observed bridges. 



Pollen abortion 

Preliminary examination of the pollen of 1). Candida 
'Culebra' disclosed a predominance of small, either 
spherical or misshapen, spores among the large and well 
sculptured ones. I decided to investigate for compara- 
tive purposes the frequencies of such abnormal pollen in 
all of the J). Candida cultivars. In all but two cases, a 
minimum of two widely separated trees was examined, 
one by myself and one by an assistant. The results of 
these examinations are recorded in Table IV. 

It can be* seen that the production of abnormal pollen 
ranges from a low of 5.7 percent in 'Dientes* to a high 
of 88.8 per cent in "Culebra\ As had been thought from 
purely morphological evidence, the cultivars 'Buyes' and 
"Dientes* do not consist of a single clone each : with both 
groups there are widely differing capacities to produce 
normal pollen. 

Some of the abnormal pollen may be accounted for by 
the inequality of meiotic products resulting from ana- 



173 , 



Plate L 



X 



Anthers 
Pisti 

Stamens 
Corolla 

Calyx 



* + +wmmw-'w* 



- 












'Buyes 



• 








i 



Dientes 1 





Ocre 



i 



i 



Biangdn 1 










■ 







■ 












'Amaron' 




v 



I 



Salomon 1 












'Quinde 



i 




1 Munchira' 



















- 




- 


_ 





^•^^^^r^^^^^ 









I 



Culebra' 



'Andres 1 



Ranges of variation in the lengths of five floral parts of Datura cul- 
tivars compared with the respective ranges of variation in I). Candida 
'Buyes*. The values for Buyes', from Table 1, are standardized to a 
common size in the uppermost ideogram, and values for the other cul- 
tivars (cf. taxonomic treatment) are expressed in proportion to these. 



Table IV. Frequencies of abnormal pollen in 1). Candida cultivars. 



Cultivar 



Buves 



* t 



Dientes* 



No. 1111 



'Ocre' 



Siangan' 



Amaroir 



< .-« 



Salaman' 



'Quinde' 



Munchira* 



Culebra' 



Tree 



a 
b 



c 
d 



f 



a 
b 



d 



a 



a 
b 



a 
b 



a 
b 



a 



a 
b 
c 
d 



a 



a 
b 



Total 

pollen 

observed 



500 



'270 



500 



518 



600 



770 



500 

500 1000 



700 

500 1200 



700 
5 2 < » 
500 1729 



608 

500 1108 



S00 
504 

500 1864 



764 

700 14-64 



1546 



594 
500 
500 
500 2094 



500 



615 
490 
250 1355 



abnormal 
pollen 

142 
56 198 



39 

29 
30 



2 2 5 
2 5 5 



506 
410 

207 



208 

216 424 



5 3 5 

402 937 



98 



1 2 9 



176 



<->rt 



60 



308 

255 563 



4 7 2 

370 

299 1141 



480 



173 



175 
21 1 
199 
180 765 



291 



1129 



abnormal 
pollen 



2 5 . 7 



42.4 



8.1 



.'. t 



25.8 



3 4 . 



43.3 



5 . 8 



6 1 . 2 



32.8 



1 1.2 



36.5 



58.2 



83.3 



[ 175 



phase bridges us noted above in Table III. The remain- 
der might well be caused by the presence of genetic fac- 
tors for pollen abortion; Blakeslee and his co-workers 
found thirty such factors in their extensive cultures of 
herbaceous Daturas (l). 

Flower variation among the Datura Candida cultivars 



All of the cultivars have markedly similar flowers, with 
the exception of the bizarre 'Culebra* which is discussed 
later. Nevertheless, each displays a distinctive range of 
variation in the length of the several floral parts. Plate 
L compares nine of the cultivars according to the lengths 
of five of their floral parts. It is evident that with but 
few exceptions the ranges of variation of each cultivar 
are either wholly within, or largely overlapping, those 
of 1). Candida 'liuyes\ This strongly suggests that most 
of the cultivars were selected from the large and variable 
population of J). Candida 'Buyes\ It further suggests 
that the Sibundoy did not select and propagate new 
forms (cultivars) characterized by floral differences, but, 
as we shall see below, they selected leaf differences lor 
preferential maintenance as clones. 



Fruit variation 

Most of the fruits found in prolonged searching 
throughout the Valley were on 'IJuyes" and 'Amaron' 



by 



far t he most numerous. Some fruits 

were also seen and collected on M)ientes\ 'Quinde' and 
'Biangan* trees; the remainder of the D. Candida culti- 
vars are believed by the natives never to form fruit. The 
indehiscent fruits eventually dry up, and the pericarp 
disintegrates slowly; but the seeds are not released, and 
the dried fruit often remains on the tree for several 
months. Plate LI shows the variation in fruit size and 
shape among the five cultivars known (however rarely) 

[ 170 ] 



Plate LI 




en 





CD 



•© 



< « 



< 



E 



LT> 




dj 






5 

o 



CD 



3 









Q 



G 







Q) 



• * .- 





— v — v __0 .. 



cd 



o> 






a 





v(0 




in 



UJO 



< < 



< 



^.-e 



® 



- 




in 



CM 



q i 6 u e 



CO 



CM 







£ 



U 



C/3 



73 






Eh 



V 



3* 



H ^ 



72 

C0 



2 



a 

c5 



s ^* 






w 

Q 



• • 

7) 

o 



c 
o 



d 

a 

o 






in 



C 

o 



2 



13 

fa 



1) 
o 

a 
o 



a 
£ 



< 



CO 



to produce fruit. Most of the nine 'Amaron' fruits col- 
lected fall within the 'Buyes' variation pattern; two are 
the same as 'Quinde\ A single 'Buyes' tree {Bristol 
1109, 1193) has unusually long (11.7 -4.7 cm.), more 

narrow fruits which are not included in Plate LI. Meas- 
urements were made on ripe fleshy fruits. 



Leaf variation 

Despite the highly conspicuous and attractive flowers 
of all the cultivars, the leaves are the centre of interest 
to the natives, to whom they are the structures of prin- 
cipal economic importance. Plate LI I depicts a repre- 
sentative leaf of each cultivar. The striking malforma- 
tion in four of the cultivars has led to statements that 
the plants are diseased, probably by viruses, or that they 
are " 'virus-races' *' (3, 22, 8.5, 36). 

Recently, Robert Kahn and R. Bartels have isolated 
a previously unknown virus from several of the cultivars, 
including 'Buyes" which never has erose or otherwise 
malformed leaves (21). These investigators have named 
the virus Colombia Datura Virus (Cl)Y) and report that 
its symptoms in Datura are leaf distortion, mottling or 
yellowing, but that sometimes there are no symptoms. 
Leaves of the common I). Candida 'Buyes* in the Valley 
of Sibundoy are never distorted, and mottling and yel- 
lowing, if present, are rare. 

It seems probable that there is no direct causative re- 
lationship between CDY and leaf shape in the J). Can- 
dida cultivars. At the same time, the genetic control of 
leaf shape is enigmatic, for careful examination of the 4 
irregularly leaved cultivars will disclose on every plant 
a few small to medium sized ovate and entire leaves, as 
in 'Buyes\ These leaves invariably occur on one or two 
branches which are growing more rapidly than all others 
on the plant. Given this exception, it is tempting to pos- 

[ 178] 



Plate LI I 




Representative leaves of all Sibundoy Datvro cultivars, with collec- 
tion numbers indicated: 1, 'Amaron, 564; 2, 'Guamuco", 1420; S, 
'Salaman', 1482; 4, 'Sangre', 1809; 5, 'Quinde', 1838; 6, 'Andres', 
1SU; 7, 'Culebra', 1112; 8, 'Munchira', 1268; 9, 'BuyeV, 1888; 
10, 'Biang.in', 890; 11, 'Dientes', 1447; 12, 'Ocre', 1267. 



tulate that the highly irregular formation of the leaves 
is caused by a critical concentration of a diffusable sub- 
stance, and that in the exceptional cases of very vigor- 
ously growing stem apices the critical level of concentra- 
tion is not reached. Such a substance might be viral or 
hormonal in nature. That the natives find the smallest, 
most malformed leaves the most toxic suggests that even 
the tropane alkaloids should not be ruled out of con- 
sideration as possible inhibitors of regular leaf develop- 
ment. As Robert Kahn has suggested to me, grafting 



experiments should help to clarify the development of 
the various leaf shapes. 



Seedlings 

Through thirteen months of constant observation of 
the Datura cultivars in the Valley of Sibundoy, no seed- 
ling tree was seen. It has been possible, however, to 
grow healthy seedlings of three clones, k Buyes\ 'Ama- 



rorf and 'Quinde*, in the greenhouses of the Biological 
Laboratories of Harvard University. The seedlings 
within each cultivar are not uniform. Seeds collected 
from I). Candida 'Quinde' trees have produced seedlings 
the leaves of which resemble M)ientes' (1506, 1611; 

ECON) as well as 'Quinde' (1607; KCON). Seedling 
variation from a single 'Quinde' fruit includes both 



'Quinde' and 'Dientes' types (1608; ECON), suggesting 
that a 'Dientes' tree may have been the pollen parent. 
'Quinde* seedlings exhibit the same failure to form 
k Quinde*-type leaves on a very vigorously growing stem 
that was observed on mature trees in the Valley of Sibun- 
doy. As the growth rate of the seedlings slows some- 
what, these same stems that grew vigorously produce 
typical 'Quinde'-type leaves. Assays of these seed grown 
"Quinde'-type leaves for the presence of mechanically 
transmittable virus by Robert Kahn (pers. comm.) have 

[ 180] 



been negative, as would ordinarily be expected. Thus 
the formation of 'Quinde'-type leaves by apparently 
healthy seedlings implies that the typical leaves of 
'Quinde'' trees are formed independently of the virus 

(CDY) infecting them. 

One may compare the successive occurrence of differ- 
ently shaped leaves to the widely encountered phenome- 
non of juvenility, but in so doing it must be noted that 
only four of the D. Candida cultivars are involved, while 
the other five are not. I have not seen any descriptions 
of juvenile leaves in the genus Datura. 

Blakeslee found a variant of D. Stramonium with a 
leaf similar but not identical to that of 'Quinde* (1). He 
named these 'Quercina' and soon established that their 
unusual leaf shape depended upon a single recessive gene. 
Curiously, he also discovered that the juices of the plant 
would transmit the characteristic to normal D. Stramo- 
nium, and he believed that the Quercina effect was caused 
both by a gene and by a virus. Further studies of the sup- 
posed virus have not been undertaken to my knowledge. 



Geographical centre of diversity 

More variation in Datura Candida is found in the Val- 
ley of Sibundoy than is known at any other locality. 
Such a centre of diversity in an isolated valley apparently 
inhabited by ancient agriculturists suggests the possibili- 
ty of domestication and early evolution here. However, 
that the Valley of Sibundoy is not the centre of origin 
of any tree Datura is attested by the absence of all Da- 
tura spp., and any solanaceous plants resembling them, 
in the non-cultivated flora. Were the Valley the site of 
domestication, we would expect to find some plants capa- 
ble of self-reproduction, either sexually or asexually, and 
not wholly dependent upon man for survival. Evidently 
one or more clones of D. Candida were brought into the 

[ 181 ] 



V 7 alley at some remote time. Today, 1). Candida is found 
neither in the eastern lowlands, nor in the western high- 
lands around Pasto, but several plants of 1). Candida 
'Buyes' {Bristol 1185) were seen in the upper Rio Juan- 
ambii drainage to the north. It may be postulated that 
I). Candida was introduced to the Valley of Sibundoy 
via the trail from the Juanambii, and that following one 
or more such introductions the Valley became a centre 

of diversity. 



Propagation 

All of the Datura eultivars in the Valley of Sibundoy 
are propagated exclusively by man through large cut- 
tings. During the annual clearing of the gardens in 
preparation for the planting of maize and beans, some 
of the many trees and shrubs in the gardens are pruned. 



back to the ground. The rem 



branches from a I) 



space is the usual occasion 



A b 



] 



m e 



loose sandy soil and given no further attention. Occa- 
sionally, a more methodical planting is undertaken when 
the branches are cut into fairly uniform pieces and 
planted out in a row 7 as a kind of hedge along the edge 
of a garden. These plants will be weeded during the 
general garden weedings four times a year. 

Tree Datura branches at different stages of maturity 
differ in their capacity to root easily from cuttings. All 
of the leaves are borne on herbaceous stems which are 
only tardily lignified. Occasionally, usually after heavy 
pruning or pollarding, one or more stems grow up with 
unusual visror and often reach a diameter twice that of a 



normal stem. The lignified part of normal stems is the 
least capable of forming roots under casual treatment; 
but the occasional, thick and uncommonly vigorous stems 

[ 182 1 



develop roots quickly and abundantly when cuttings are 
taken from the region which has begun to lignify. One 
clone, 'Munchira\ is difficult to propagate, since its stems 
are typically undersized, and the few stunted plants in 
existence are only rarely cut back. When this is done, 
however, the expected growth of thick, vigorous shoots 
appears, and cuttings made from these root easily. 

Abundance of Datura cultivars 

In the Valley of Sibundoy, tree Daturas are more con- 
spicuous and more abundant than at many other localities 
in southern Colombia. At least 00 per cent of the trees 
are I). Candida 'Buyes\ while another 30 per cent are 
I). Candida 'Dientes" and 'Amaron*. All of the economi- 
cally more important cultivars comprise the remaining 
10 percent. 'Fable V indicates the estimated number of 
individuals of each cultivar in li)C>;J, and emphasizes the 
raritv of manv. 



Table V. Kstimated number of individuals of Datura cultivars 

in the Yaliev of Sibundov in 1968. 



ca. ]()()() 'Buyes' 

ca. 300 'Dientes' 

ca. 200 Ainaron* 



less than 40 



'Culebra' 
Quinde" 
Guamuco' 
Bianffan* 



Munchira* 

less than 20 < c 

r>an2Te 



Andres* 
less than 1 Ocre' 

Sal a in an 



It is difficult to judge whether the relative scarcity of 
nine of the cultivars reflects their more recent appearance 
in cultivation, or the degree of jealousy with which they 

[ 183] 



arc guarded from other potential owners. A medicine- 
man once stated that he could not afford to be seen near 
an unusual Datura in another man's garden (6), If such 
a prohibition is general among the Sibundoy, the tree 
Daturas, however useful, may be increasing at an ex- 
tremely slow rate. The two cultivars thought by the 

Sibundoy to be the most toxic, J). Candida Wlunchira' 
and 'Salaman*. are among the least abundant. 



Common names 

The three linguistic groups of people in the Valley of 
Sibundoy agree in grouping all the Datura cultivars in 
the Spanish term borrachera (Mnebriant"). 5 However, 

the Sibundoy believe this to be a Kamsa morpheme, not 
a loan word. Ten of the twelve cultivars are discrimi- 
nated verbally, but because of the rarity of several, very 
lew Sibundoy can name all ten. To name all ten, one 
must draw words from three lan^ua^es, but because of 

generalized borrowing among these three, a speaker may 

not be aware of this. Kamsa lacks names for three cul- 
tivars, [nga for two. Table VI gives the common names 



recorded in 19(>2-63. A full account of the vernacular 
names is given with the taxonomic treatment of the cul- 
tivars. My capabilities did not permit the most precise 
form of phonetic records. .Accurate pronunciation will 
be approximated most frequently within the Spanish, 
not the ftnglish, phonetic framework. An exception is 

bui-ish which I have written here buy es, conforming with 

the notation of Juajibioy (ID). 

Economic importance 

Both my own investigations and the reports of others 
indicate that the Daturas are used about equally for 



'Several non-solanaceous, non-psychotropic plants are also called 
borrachera, e.^., Iresine celosia L., /. herbstii I look. f., and other un- 
identified plants. 

184 



Table VI. Common names employed in the Valley of Sibundoj 



for Datura cultivars. 



Common name 



1 . A mar on 



2. Andaqui 

3. Biangdn 

4. Borrachera% 



Language 



Scientific name 



Spanish D. Candida 



Inga 
Inira 



Datu 



ra 



An 



I). 



can 



did a 



K 



amsa 



D. Candida 



(Spanish) I). Candida 
5. Borrachera de agua Spanish D. Candida 



0. Buyes 

7. Cari 

8 . Cucu 

9. Culebra 

10. Chontaruco 

1 1 . Danta 

1 2 . Floripondio 

13. Guamuco' 

14. Guamuco bianco 

15. Guamuco floripundo 

16. Ngunsiana 

17. Lengua de tigre 



Kamsa 

Inga 

Inga 

Spanish 

Inga 

I n ga 



D. Candida 
I). Candida 
D. Candida 
D. Candida 
D. Candida 
I). Candida 



Spanish D. Candida 



? 



Spanisl 

? 

Kamsa 



i 



* 



18. Mutscuai 

19. Munch ira 

20. Quinde* 
2 1 . Salaman 

22. Salamanga 

23. Salvanje 



I). Candida 
D.sanguinea 
]). Candida 
Spanish D. Candida 
Kamsa D. Candida 

1). Candida 
I). Candida 
I). Candida 
I). Candida 
D. Candida 



Inga 

Inga 

? 



K 



? 



amsa 



Amaron' 
dres* 
Bianiran' 



Buyes*, Dientes' 
Buyes', Dientes' 

Buyes', Dientes' 

Quinde' 

Amaron' 

Culebra" 

Siangan' 

Biangan' 

Buyes', Dientes' 



D.sanguinea Guamuco', Sangre' 



Buyes', Dientes' 
Guamuco', Sangre' 

Quinde' 

Culebra* 

Culebra' 

Munchira' 

Quinde* 

Sala 



man 



Salaman' 
Salaman' 



* 



Most frequently employed while speaking Spanish. 



% Borrachera is usually "tree Datura'. When the context is not clear 
it follows the cultivar name,e. g. ^culebra borrachera snake tree Datura'. 



medicii 
Sibund 



d for psychotropic preparations by th 

summarized in Tabl 



rh 



formation is 



VII. Several of the cultivars are relatively unim 



but to fou 



f 



respect for th 



power to alter consciousness drastically — even to cause 

death. 

Most of the Sibundoy indicate a genuine interest in 
the borracheras, but individuals vary greatly in the ex- 



[18 



o 



• Table 7. Uses of Patura cultlvars. (x indicates one report*.) 





























Use 












Internal 






Externa 


1 








^»* '^^pi^V^^H^V^- V ^^ - ^ *"^^^^J^-J 




Medic ine 






Cultivar 


Psychotropic 


§ 

V) 
Q 


60 

1 

QJ 
> 


X! 


AntirheuLr^tic 


CO 


00 

tn 


Comon Cold 

1 


1. Gur.muco ~) 


















2. Sangre J 










x x 


X X 






3. Buye*s ^ 










X 








lw DienteaJ 


















£. Ocra 


















6. Siangan 


X X 

X 1 

x 2 






X 1 










7. AmarCn 










X 


X 






! 8 # Salp.rrrin 


X 








X 








9. Quinde 


XXX 
XXX 




X 




X 


X 






! 10. Munchira 


XXX 
X X 

x 3 




x 3 


X X 


X 




X 




l 


x k 
















i 
11. Culebra 


x 5,6 


x 5 






X X X 




X 


X 

x 6 




x 7 

x 3 


x 8 




x 8 


x 8 


x 8 


x8 


x 8 




x 9 










x 9 


1 


x 9 




x 10 
x 11 
















12. Ar.dr^3 


X 














_-... 



* 



'Report" here means one of the following: (a) one Sibundoy's personal 
report to me, (b) one herbarium specimen notation by another botanist, (<•) one 
primary literature statement not duplicating a herbarium notation, b and rare 

footnoted. 



I. ldrobo2281 (COL) 

2. (S8) 

:;. Idrobo 2223 (CO I.) 

4. (20) 

5. &-/<tt//ex£££0(COL,ECON t GH) 11. Mora 1028 (COL) 

6. (29) 



7. Schultes 20079 (GH) 

8. (.S3) 

9. Idrobo 2221 (COL) 

10. Ferndndez 2641 (COL) 



tent of their knowledge. For example, very few, perhaps 
only the medicine-men, are able to name all the cultivars 
accorded recognition by the culture; but even some of 
these may be unaware of cv. Salaman. Many informants 
can provide names and some kind of information on four 
or five different borracheras. The "average" landowner 
may own several 'Buyes 5 trees but probably has no eco- 
nomically important cultivar. Both his knowledge and 
his curiosity extend beyond the borracheras in his own 
garden. Following is a summary of economic uses. 



1. 'Guamuco' — A poultice of the flowers, together with 
'Culebra' leaves and the stems and leaves of Phenaoc 
integrifolius Wedd. is used to treat rheumatism. The 
leaves are sometimes heated and tied over swollen 
infections, or an infusion of the leaves may be used 
to bathe infections. 



2. 'Sangre* — Same as 4 Guamuco\ 



8. 'Buyes* — -Leaves of this cultivar are sometimes pow- 
dered and applied topically with other drugs to relieve 
rheumatic pain. 

One informant said he always uses the fruit of this at 
maize planting time. He plants a few fruits along with 
the maize in order to prevent grubs or other soil pests 
from eating the germinating seed. This interesting ges- 



ture to protect the crop can scarcely be a general prac- 
tice, however, because fruiting is rare. This is the only 
use ever encountered for any Datura fruit or seed in the 

Valley of Sibundoy. 

\. 'Dientes* — Same as 4 Buyes\ 
5. 'Ocre' — No use encountered. 
G. 'Biangan" — The leaves and flow r ers can be ground 

[ 187 ] 



finely and mixed into a dog's food prior to a hunting 
expedition, supposedly to make the animal locate 
more game. The behavior of a do<r so intoxicated 



would be most interesting to observe, but hunting is 
rarely practiced in the Valley today. 



An herbarium specimen from Sibundoj T (Idrobo 2231; 
COL) records this note on bum gun borrachero: "Taken 
as a stimulant when feeling fatigue and also as an hallu- 
cinogen/* I did not learn of these uses by the Sibundoy. 
However, one Sibundoy related how his three year old 
daughter ate part of some flowers of this near the house 
and became dizzy and incoherent, falling to the ground 
and shouting periodically lor many hours thereafter. 

Vepes (#8) included this in his account of intoxicating 



plants used by a medicine-man from Santiago (not of 
the Sibundoy tribe). 



7. 'Amaron" — The leaves of this cultivar are sometimes 
used as a suppurant and as an anti-rheumatic. 



8. 'Salaman' — This cultivar is the rarest, being known 
only in one garden, and its owner considers it the most 
toxic of all the Daturas. He uses the leaves, along 



with those of 'Quinde* and 'Culebra* in an infusion for 
bathing rheumatic limbs and joints. He has also used 
both the leaves and flowers for their psychotropic 
effect, as described below. 



9. 'Quinde* — This is the most widely known of the eco- 
nomically important cultivars. An infusion of the 
leaves is employed both as an anti-rheumatic and as 
a vermifuge, and the leaves are applied topically as a 
suppurant. The leaves and occasionally the flowers 
are used psychotropically, probably more often than 
any other Sibundoy Datura (cf. below). 

[ 188 ] 



10. 'Munchira' — The minute and highly toxic leaves are 
employed medicinally as an anti-rheumatic, emetic, 
carminative, vermifuge and to treat erysipelas. Their 
psychotropic use is described below. 

1 1. 'Culebra' — This cultivar has received more attention 
from botanists because of its especially curious mor- 
phology, and because of its description by Schultes 
in 19.55, as a distinct genus, Methysticodendron. De- 
spite the numerous reports on its medicinal, and 
especially psychotropic, importance, my investiga- 
tion showed it to be less important to the present 
day Sibundoy than either 'Quinde' or 'Munchira*. 
I found it used against resfrio ('colds,) and against 
erysipelas, and more often than other cultivars, 
against rheumatism. 



Schultes reported the use of culebra borraehcra in 
treating swollen joints, combating chills and fevers, and 
in divination, prophecy, therapy, and learning "witch- 
craft" (29). 

Theilkuhl, who visited the Sibundoy in 1950, was also 
able to learn of the importance of this plant as a psycho- 
tropic drug, as well as medicinally in the form of poul- 
tices, "to combat rheumatism, swollen infections, muscle 
cramps, erysipelas, and in the form of baths, colds" (35). 



12. 'Andres' — One informant said he had used the flow- 
ers psychotropically. 



Psychotropic use 

Literature dealing with the Daturas of the Valley of 
Sibundoy has emphasized their importance as psycho- 
tropic, or mind affecting, drugs (27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 
30, 38). Writings based directly upon experience among 
the Sibundoy are those of Schultes (1955) and Theilkuhl 

[ 189 1 



(unpublished thesis, 1957) dealing only with 'Culebra\ 
and of Pedro Juajibioy (1960, MS.), Yepes interviewed 
Inga-speaking medicine-men travelling throughPopayan 
to the north (38). 

Because of the possibility that the Sibundoy learned 
the use of some of the Datura cultivars from the nearby 
Inga-speaking peoples of Santiago, Colon and San An- 
dres, it is well to include here the following information 
collected from some of their medicine-men (38): 

Horracheras. (Daturas). They are characterized as calientes (l> 
equal to fire.' They distinguish more toxic and less toxic species, 

and give preference to the latter for divinatory purposes. When 
they take them, they have an assistant accompany them because 

they produce furious intoxication beyond certain dosages. 

Borrachera. 'Lengua de Tigre or Tinye' (2). In small quantity, it 
gives strength. Beginning by cooking three pairs of leaves or one 
flower, one progresses to larger dosages with time, and in this form 
it serves to make divination, diagnosis and witchcraft [wa/^ficio]. 

Siangan borrachera. During the wane of the moon, 2 pairs of leaves 
are given to the dogs so that they will go out as hunters (;>)• 

Danta borrachera. It is given to hunting dogs so that they may 
follow easilv the trail of any animal (s). 



(1) Calientes ('hot' plur.), medicines which cure the diseases . . . 
produced by cold." (38). 

(2) Identity unknown, but apparently referable to D. Candida Saff. 
(8) Apparently I). Candida Biangan'. 

The Sibundoy [inga-speaking native of the Valley of Sibundoy, 
not a Sibundoy J knows intoxication with borrachero by the dryness 
of the throat and the dilatation of the pupil (38). 



Schultes, who investigated the plants among the Si- 
bundoy in 1942, 1940 and 11)53, summarized his findings 
on the psychotropic aspects of culcbra borrachera in these 
words (29) : 

This intoxication, resorted to by the witch-doctors only for very 
important or difficult cases of divination, prophecy or therapy, usu- 
ally lasts for two full days and sometimes may persist for four 
with a long period of complete lack of consciousness. Missionaries 

[ 1M] 



who have been at work in the Valley of Sibundoy for more than a 
quarter of a century suspect that the death of one aged witch- 
doctor may have been due to an overdraught of this narcotic. 

Smaller doses of the drug are administered to boys who are study- 
ing witchcraft. Certain of the medicine-men's secrets apparently 
are imparted only when the novitiate is under the protection" of 
this narcotic. 



Both Schultes' and Theilkuhl's descriptions of the 
method of preparation of the drug are nearly the same 

as that described below for the other cultivars. 

Theilkuhl, after visiting the Sibundoy in 195(>, wrote 

of this clever use of culebra borrachera (35): 

... it is suspected that occasionally unscrupulous Indians use it 
as a burundanga', that is, to deprive outsiders of their senses and 
rob them. 

It seems that the 'medicos* or curacas' take an aqueous macera- 
tion of the leaves to produce hallucinations, during which they say 
they see the solution of difficult cases of divination, prophecy or 
diagnosis. One of the medicos" questioned affirms that the cule- 
bra borrachera' is employed in a manner similar to that of yage" 
[Banisteriopsis spp. ; (t))j, the focal point of Amazonian medical 
practice. 

Yepes, Schultes and Theilkuhl use the words divina- 
tion, prophecy, diagnosis and witchcraft in describing 

the psychotropic use of Datura, yet no Sibundoy I en- 
countered stated such reasons for using any Datura drug. 
Nor has Haydee Seijas found these usages during more 
than one year of investigating Sibundoy ethnomedicine 
(pers. comm.). Most of those with whom I talked ap- 
peared to consider the drugs hallucinogens, but I failed to 
record precisely their statements. Had this been done by 
myself and the other observers, we might assess the psy- 
chological, as well as social, significance more accurately. 
The Sibundoy observer, Pedro Juajibioy, has recorded 
five instances of intoxication with Datura among his 
acquaintances (20). In three cases, it is stated that the 
leaves were taken to cure disease: agua blanca ('white 

[ 191 ] 



water') and stomach ache. Agua blanca refers probably 
to gonorrhea (Seijas, pers. comm.). Only in one case 
does he mention the identity of the cultivar — 'Munchira\ 
The following experience may be due to use of D. Can- 
dida 'Culebra* : 

The first time I drank six leaves at night. I got drunk. I saw woods 
full of trees, people from somewhere else, animals, stumps, pastures 
full of all kinds of snakes that came up the slopes of the pasture 
all in green. They coiled to bite me. As the intoxication took 
greater hold of me, the house started to revolve against the world, 
and the same with the things in the house, etc. But the snakes 
stretched for the kill ! 



Such horrible hallucinations may be commonplace. 
The Sibundoy appear to have an instinctive fear of snakes, 
despite the supposed absence of poisonous ones in the 
Valley. One medicine-man who had never taken 'Cule- 
bra' thought that if he did he would see "ugly things, 
snakes'*. 

Juajibioy (ibid.) gives another example which was 
surely entertaining for observers : 

I took . . . only six leaves. I got drunk after an hour [and?] my 
vision went dim. During the day I saw unknown people duplicated 
that is, one person in two men. I felt crazy. I started running, 
then took otf my clothes, and ran around naked in the garden, and 
showered myself with the piles of dirty weeds left by the hired 
men who were working at that moment. I also insulted them freely. 
And I went about kissing several tree trunks thinking they were 
my fiancee. Later I took to writing letters. I went out to the pasture 
with a rope to catch a horse to ride, but it turned out to be a dog. 

Despite these reports, I did not succeed in locating 
any native of the Valley who had employed D. Candida 
'Culebra* for its psychotropic action. One prominent 
medicine-man has in his garden eight plants of this clone, 
perhaps one quarter of all the plants extant in the Val- 
ley. While he regularly takes the psychotropic Banis- 
teriopsis ((>) and has tried several of the Daturas, he has 
not taken 'Culebra* and knows of no one who has done 

[192] 



so. Frequently natives do not specify which borrachera 
they refer to unless questioned, and outsiders may easily 
assume culebra is intended. 

Seijas reports that borrachera is sometimes added to 
chicha, the nutritious daily beverage of low alcohol con- 
tent (pers. comm.). However, she adds that many con- 
sider this an antisocial practice, since it often results in 
disorderly behavior and fighting. 

A dozen cases of intentional intoxication with the 
other three important Datura cultivars have come to 
my attention. 

As psychotropic drugs, it is 'Quinde*, 'Munchira* and 
(reportedly) "Culebra" which are employed principally. 
The juice of the leaves, or occasionally of the flowers, is 
taken, usually alone and unheated. Depending on the 
size of the leaves, between one leaf and twenty-four 
leaves ("twelve pairs") are taken. Normally the leaves 
are taken in pairs, and sometimes (Seijas, pers. comm.) 
only as even numbers of pairs. While one leaf is suffi- 
cient in the case of the large-leaved 'Salaman\ two or 
four of the smaller 'Quinde* leaves are used. Between 
eight and twenty-four of the minute 'Munchira' leaves 

are required. The leaves are usually macerated and 
crushed and the expressed juices taken alone or some- 
times mixed with a jigger of water or trago (alcoholic 
distillate), partly for convenience. Sugar is sometimes 
added to the juice to make it more palatable. One in- 
formant heated 'Munchira' leaves in a very small amount 
of water to extract the juices. 

One medicine-man made the drug by expressing the 

juice from one flower each of 'Salaman*, 'Quinde* and 

4 Munchira\ thus obtaining about 15 cc. to which he 

added sugar. Another individual used only two flowers, 

both of 'Quinde\ 

The psychotropic use of these Daturas is not restricted 

[ 193 ] 



Plate LI 1 1 




Salvador Chindoy and his wile posing beside liis aged Munchira' 

tree. (A prop prevents the crown from leaning on the root" of the 
house. ) 



to medicine-men ; they are in exclusive possession of 
neither the trees nor of the knowledge of how to prepare 
the drug. However, it is likely that in many cases a 
medicine-man prepares or directs the preparation of the 
drug, especially with regard to dosage. 

The descriptions of the psychotropic effects, related 
to me by those who have experienced them, are in re- 
markable agreement. It stuns them, makes them lose 
their senses, and leaves their mouths and throats so un- 
pleasantly dry that thej^ can neither swallow nor talk for 
many hours. Their vision is disturbed, bringing objects 
nearer and farther away, and some experience visual hal- 
lucinations, especially of animals that they fear. One 
woman said that taking 'Munchira' made her feel 
stronger and younger. Unfortunately, the dominant 

y is of the long hours with a dry, constricted 
which nrevented eatin<?. drinkino" and sneaking 1 . 



memo 



Informants discussing Datura narcosi: 
with their experiences with biaooii (I? 



more nleasant and 



abl 



Chemistry 

Chemical analyses of Datura Candida 'Culebra* 
{Metfujsticodcndron Amcsianum) were done within five 
years after its description in 1955 by Schultes. 

Theilkuhl found hyoscyamine and atropine in the 
leaves, though he believed the last-named was produced 
probably during the isolation process (35). Pachter and 
Hopkinson, who worked with thirteen kilograms of dried 
leaves and stems, found four alkaloids present, of which 
i-scopolamine accounted for 80 percent (25). Atropine 
was also present, but two others in smaller amount were 
not identified. The plant materials for both studies were 
obtained in the Valley of Sibundoy or originated from 

[ 195 ] 



such material. To my knowledge, no other Datura ma- 
terial deriving from populations in the Valley has been 
analyzed chemically or pharmacologically. 

The alkaloids of the genus Datura have been subjected 
to intensive study. For a concise review by Edward 
Leete see .Avery et al. (1). The principal alkaloids of the 
tree Daturas are the tropanes hyoscine (scopolamine), 
hyoscyamine and atropine. W. C. Evans and his co- 
workers are actively investigating these and closely re- 
lated alkaloids in Datura cornigera (white flowered) and 
D. sanguined (11, 12, 13, 14). Their efforts promise to 
demonstrate alkaloidal composition and biogenesis in all 
the tree Daturas. They are currently analyzing several 
of the cultivars described herein. The roots of tree Da- 
turas, like those of the herbaceous forms, contain in ad- 
dition to the above named alkaloids, esters of tiglic acid 
with 8a-hydroxy-, 3a, G /3-dihydroxy- and 3a, G /3, 7/3- 
trihydroxytropane. Ditigloyl esters appear to be present 
in all the Datura species examined. D. sangvinca con- 
tains acetoxy derivatives, one occurring as the mixed 
ester 3a-tigloyl-6 /3-acetoxytropane. 

Pharmacology 

The psychotropic effects of the crude drugs upon the 
Sibundoy have been noted above. 

Atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are of con- 
siderable importance in modern medical practice, but the 
commercial sources of the drugs at present are other 
solanaceous genera, Duboisia and Hyoscyamus. 

Henry summarizes the pharmacologic effects of these 
as follows (17) : 

When administered internally in toxic doses, atropine at first stimu- 
lates but eventually depresses the central nervous system, giving rise 
to hallucinations, incoherent speech, delirium and convulsions, 
followed by stupor and coma. It paralyzes muscles and secretory 
glands to the effects of stimulation by post ganglionic, cholinergic, 

[ 196 



nerve fibres. It is to this action that the dryness of throat and 
mouth characteristic of belladonna poisoning is due. 

The natural alkaloid, i-hyoscyamine and its d-isomeride resemble 
atropine ((//-hyoscyamine) qualitatively in action. . . . 

[Hyoscine (scopolamine)] has an action similar to, but more tran- 
sitory than, that of atropine on the peripheral, cholergic, autonomic 
nervous system. Its action on the central nervous system is differ- 
ent. Generally it induces a feeling of fatigue and drowsiness pass- 
ing into sleep. In some cases there may be a preliminary stage of 
excitement, and with large doses excitement indistinguishable from 
that of atropine intoxication may occur. The respiratory centre is 
depressed from the start. The 7-isomeride has the more powerful 
peripheral action, although the central action of both isomerides is 

the same (p. 106-7). 

Claus and Tyler (10) add that atropine applied locally 
causes a "dullness or slight paralysis of the sensory 
nerves", thus easing pain. This action probably relates 
to the frequent use of leaves in treating rheumatism. 

General statements such as these give a good indica- 
tion of the types of pharmacologic activity which proba- 
bly will be demonstrated in the tree Daturas, and suggest 
the basis for both their medicinal and psychotropic use 
by the Sibundoy. However, because the Sibundoy Da- 
turas are constant hosts to several viruses which may 
affect the cultivars differently, and because the Sibundoy 
have encountered greatly differing levels of toxicity, it 
seems very probable that an eventual understanding 
both of the biogenesis and of the pharmacologic activity 
of the Sibundoy Datura alkaloids will constitute a unique 
chapter in our increasing knowledge of the solanaceous 

tropane alkaloids. 



Key to Datura in the Valley qf Sibundoy 

A. Exposed corolla mostly red, leaves soft-pubescent D. sanguinea 

a. Corolla tube yellow at the middle cv. Guamuco 

aa. Corolla tube green or red at the middle, lacking 

yellow entirely • . . . . cv. Sangre 

AA. Corolla lacking red, leaves not soft-pubescent . . D. Candida 

[ 197 



Key to Datura (cont.) 

a. Corolla yellow-orange cv. Ocre 

aa. Corolla white 

b. Corolla very deeply lobed, filaments apieally 

contorted, leaves long-linear cv. Culebra 

bb. Corolla slightly lobed, filaments straight, leaves 
not long-linear 

c. Leaves with regular venation and uniform margins 

d. Leaves dentate cv. Dientes 

dd. Leaves entire 

Pistil exceeding 80 cm., corolla 31-43 cm. cv. Andres 

Pistil less than 25 cm., corolla ^0-30 cm. 

Leaves yellowish, pistil L 2 C 2— L 24- cm. . . . cv. Biangan 

Leaves not yellowish, pistil 14—21 cm. . . cv. Buycs 

cc. Leaves with irregular venation and variously 

erose margins (cf. Plate LI I) cvs. Amaron 

Salaman 

Quinde 

Munchira 

Taxonomy of the genus Datura 
in the Valley of Sibundoy 

1. Datura sanguinea Ruiz § Pavon Fl. Peruv. 2: 
15. 1799, 

Brugmansia bicolor Persoon Syn. PL I: 21(5. 180,5; 

Lindley Bot. Keg. 20: pi. 1739. 1834. 

li. sanguinea 1). Don in Sweet Brit. Fl. Gard, II. 3: 




. 272. 1885; Lagerheim Bot. Jahrb. Engl. 20: 662. 

1895. 

Small trees, 2-5 meters in height: leaves soft- 
pubescent, the lower repand to angular, the upper usu- 
ally entire; flowers 17-25 cm. long, the corolla with a 
short-toothed, recurved to strongly reflexed (rarely erect) 
limb, the tube typically green within the calyx, yellow 
at the middle and red or orange-red (rarely yellow- 
orange to bronze) toward the limb, the ribs yellow; an- 



thers 12-18 mm.; stigma obtuse; fruit ovoid (rarely 
oblong-elliptic), the base rounded to acute (rarely 
acuminate) and mucronate, in cross section usually bi- 

198 ] 



Plate Ll\ 



Datura 



sanguinea 



GUAMUCO 




Datura .sanguinea It. & P. cv. Guamuco. Flowering and fruiting 



branches, 






laterally flattened, or 4 5-sided to nearly round with 2 
or 4 longitudinal sulci; seeds verruculose and lacking a 
greatly thickened testa. 

la. 'Guamuco' n. cv. Plate LIV. 

Calyx broad, 1 3-lobed, 6.7-12.2 cm. long; corolla 
17.6 21.2 cm., yellow at the middle, red toward the 

limb; stamens 15.7 19.2 cm. (including their adnation 
to corolla), anthers 15 IS mm. : pistil 15.5-19 cm. : fruit 
ovoid to conical, bisulcate, with half-persistent calyx, 
rare. N = 12 (Bristol 1114). 

The pollen very closely resembles that of I), cumlida. 

1 * * 

Kxamination of .500 microspores of one plant showed 
58.8 per cent to be abnormal. 

Common names: Guamuco, Guamucu borrachera. 

Guamuco is a non-Kamsa term, also used occasionally 
for Spigelia pedunculata HBK. It may relate to guambia 
"poison", lor the Sibundoy know both plants to be highly 

poisonous. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumavo: Yalle de Sibundoy, alt. ca. 
2200 in. — 1.5 km. S Sibundoy. ''Tree 3 m. ; corolla vellow below, 
reddish orange above, veins yellow above : anthers white. In cultiva- 
tion; veryrare." 20-XII-1962, ^/9*(ECON). — San Andres. "'Gua- 
muco'. Shrub 2.5 ni. ; corolla orange-red, limb recurved. Cultivated, 
infreq." 18-111-1963, (UU. (COL, KCON, PASTO, US). — 3-j kms. 



t * 4 



S Sibundov. Guamuca borrachera'. Tree 3.5 m. ; a few Ivs. en- 

tire: corolla tube green, becoming yellow; throat and limb red, be- 
coming orange during anthesis ; anthers white, pollen abundant: no 

fruit. Indian garden, very infreq." 12-VI-1968, 1114 (COL, ECON, 



4 i fc 



BISH, PASTO, S, IS). — J kms. SE Sibundoy. Guamuco'. Shrub 
2 m. : corolla tube green, becoming light orange, limb and throat 
deep red, becoming lighter. Indian bouseyard, very infreq." 27- 



. . . 



VIII-1963, ISJfO (COL). — Colon. Guamuca borrachera*. Tree 4 

m., trunk diam. 23 cm., young bark brown; calyx slightly purplish; 
corolla red-orange except greenish vellow where emerging from calyx, 

and the ribs yellow, limb recurved : fr. ovoid or triangular, acuminate 
with 2 furrows, the calyx half-persistent; seeds dark brown." 23-IX- 

1963, 1420 (COL, KCON, BISH, K, PASTO, US). — Sibundoy. 29- 
V-1946, Schultes # Villarreal 7689 (COL, KCON, US). 

* Collection uumbers are those of the author, unless otherwise specified. 



lb. cv. Sangre. 

This cultivar, described in Hot. Mus. Leafi. Harvard 
Univ. 21 : 236 (1966), is distinguished by the corolla 
color, which is deep red (basally green), entirely lacking 
in yellow. The flower size and shape is variable ; in the 
Valley of Sibundoy, the calyx is narrow, terminating in 
a single apicule, 8.8-9.5 cm. long, the corolla 17-6-21 
cm. long. Stamens (incl. their adnation to corolla) 15.4- 
18.9 cm., anthers 13-14. mm. and pistil 1G.9-19 cm. The 
oblong, bisulcate fruit has a persistent calyx. 

Common names: Guamuco, Guamuco borrachcra, as 
for the first cultivar. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. ca. 



i i i 



2200 m. — San Andres. Guamuco*. Shrub 2.5 m. ; corolla red, limb 
spread somewhat, but not rolled upward as in 653. Cultivated." 18- 
III-1963, 652 (COL, ECON, PASTO, US).— San Andres. "Arbores- 
cent 2.5 m. ; exposed corolla red (no yellow present); fr. 90X55 mm., 
ovoid, 5-ridged, not flattened. Roadside, common." 20-VIII-1963, 

1309 (COL, ECON, US). 

2. Datura Candida (Pers. ) Safford in Journ. Wash. 

Acad. Sci. 11: 182. 1921. 

D. arborca Ruiz & Pavon Fl. Peruv. 2: 15. pi. 128. 

1799; non 1). arborca L. 

llrugmansia Candida Persoon Sj T n. PI. 1: 216. 1805. 

D. aurea Lagerheim Gartenfl. 42: 33. 1893; Safford 

ibid. 186. 1921. 

11. aurea Lagerheim in Bot. Jahrb. Engl. 20: 664. 

1895. 

11. arborca Lagerheim ibid. 663. 
1). affinis Safford ibid. 186. 
D. Pittieri Safford ibid. 187. 

Small trees, 3-5 meters in height; leaves glabrous or 
slightly pubescent, ovate or oblong-elliptic, entire or 
coarsely dentate; calyx 1.5-3 cm. broad, 1-4-toothed; 
the slender basal part of the white corolla wholly en- 
closed by the calyx, the limb flaring broadly with long 

[ 3201 ] 




-9 cm.) recurved teeth : anthers distinct; fruit oblong- 
cylindric to fusiform and lacking a persistent calyx ; seeds 
angular, with a greatly thickened, suberose testa. 



2a. 'Buyes' n. cv. Plates XLIX and LV. 

Ratio of leaf width to length. 840- 577, calyx 8.5-16.1 
cm., corolla 19.0-29.3 cm., stamens (inch adnation of 
filaments to corolla) 13.2-19.9 cm., anthers 80-41 mm., 

pistil 14.3-21.2 cm. N = 12 {Bristol 1117, 1266). 

This is the common borrachcra found throughout the 
Valley in inhabited locations and where there is evidence 
of sites of former habitation. Cv. Buyes is the most 
variable of all the 1). Candida cultivars. Several to many 
clones are included here, but they are only obscurely 
differentiated, and neither the natives nor the people of 
Spanish descent distinguish among them. Differences 
in the splitting of the calyx, diameter of corolla tube, 
length of corolla and length of corolla teeth, as well as 



others, can be seen. 

Common names: Borrachcra, borracherushe, buyes 

borrachera, buyes borracherushe, borrachcra de agua, 

floripnndo, jloripondio bianco, guamuco bianco, guamuco 

floripundo. 

Borrachcra 'inebrianf is from the Spanish borracha 
'wine skin", whence borraeho 'drunkard*. The Sibun- 

doy believe it to be a word of their own language, 
Ivamsa, an indication of its long usage among them. 
Elsewhere in Colombia I). Candida is known as borra- 
chcro 'inebriating tree'. 

Borracherushe is a variant, and more typically Kamsa 
form, of the first. 

Buyes 'water* is of unexplained application here, but 
perhaps it refers to the plant's preference for a wet 
site, and the common habit of planting it near ditches. 

[ 202 ] 



Plate L\ 




Datura Candida (Pers.)Saff. cv. Buyes. Flowering and fruiting 



branches, 



1 




Floripondio (Spanish) 'tioribunda' refers to "the size and 
abundance of its flowers" (38). 

Agua (Spanish) 'water', equivalent to buyes. 

Blanco (Spanish) 'white', for the flower color. 

Guamuco (language?) is the name in the Valley and else- 
where for the red-flowered I), sansruinea. 



Buyes borrachera and its variants are employed with 
about equal frequency by the Sibundoy, while the re- 
maining names are used only by immigrants from Narifio 
and elsewhere in Colombia. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. ca. 
2200 in. — Sibundoy, collados al norte del pueblo. N ombre castel- 
lano: borrachera'. Large bush. Fl. white." 12-II-194 C 2, Schultes 

:J07 (GH, NY).— Sibundoy. " 'Bui-ish borrachera'. Tree 4 m. ; 

corolla white, fragrant, limb cordate between teeth. Calyx teeth 2—3. 

Borders, freq." 26-IV-1963, 881 (COL, KCON, BISH, K, PASTO, 



4 4 4 



S, US). — Sibundoy. Bui-ish borrachera'. Arborescent 2.5 m. ; 

corolla white. Borders, frequent." 26-IV-1963, 8S9 (ECON). — 3 km. 



SW Sibundoy. Tree 4 m. ; corolla white. Infreq. in borders." 9- 
V-1968, 999 (COL, KCON, PASTO, US).— 4 km. SW Sibundoy. 

Bui-ish borrachera'. Tree 4 m. Secondary woodland." 3-VI-1963, 



4 4 4 



1098 (COL, ECON, K, PASTO, US).— Sibundoy. Bui-ish borra- 

chera'. Tree 3.5 m. ; corolla white; frs. {jreen, few. Hedpe row, 
frequent." 10-VI-1963, 1109 (COL, FXON, US). — 3-5 km. S Sibun- 



4 4 4 



doy. Bui-ish borrachera'. Free 5 m. ; corolla white; fr. green. 

Borders, common/' 12-V1-1963, 1117 (COL, KCON, US).— Sibun- 



4 4 4 



doy. Bui-ish borrachera'. Tree 4 m. ; firs, pendulous, corolla 

white; fr. green, indehiscent. Border, frequent. " 10-VI-1963, 1193 



(COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, LS).— Sibundoy. Bui-ish 

borrachera 1 . Tree 4 m. ; corolla white, limb recurved. Borders, fre- 
quent." 22-VII-1963, 1255 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, 
US). — Colon. "Tree 2.5 m. ; corolla white. Border, Indian garden." 
25-VII-1963, 1266 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, US).— 2 



kin. SW Sibundoy. Bui-ish borrachera'. Arborescent 2-5 in. ; firs, 

pendulous, corolla emerging pale yellow, white when fully open; 
anthers white; stigma very pale yellow. Borders, common. " 19-IX- 

1963, 1388 (ECON). 

2b. 'Dientes' n. cv. 

Leaves dentate, ratio of width to length .550, calyx 

[ 204 ] 



11.1-18.4 cm., corolla 22.5-25.7 cm., stamens (inch 
adnation of filaments to corolla) 14.3-10.5 cm., anthers 
32-38 mm., pistil 15.8-17-8 cm., fruiting occasionally. 
The distinguishing feature of this cultivar is the den- 
tate leaf margin which is usually restricted to the distal 
half of the leaf, but which may occur throughout the 
length. Almost all of the plants in the Valley of Sibun- 
doy occur in a single locality two to three kilometers 
southeast of the town of Sibundoy. Along three main 
trails covering two kilometers here, the many landowners 
have planted nearly 250 of these trees. 

Common names: Buyes borrachera, etc., the same as 

for I). Candida ' Buyes". 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Yalle de Sibundoy, alt. ca. 



• • . 



-2200 m.— 2 km. SW Sibundoy. Trailside, very infreq." 14-IV-1963, 



77^ (ECON). — 3 km. S Sibundoy. Bui-ish borrachera'. Tree 4 m. ; 
corolla white; fr. green, pericarp drying and decaying but indehis- 
cent. Border, infreq." 15-VI-1963, 1122 (ECON).— 2.5 km. S Sibun- 



. . . 



doy. Bui-ish borrachera". Tree 4 m. ; corolla white, pendulous: 
frs. broadly fusiform, indehiscent. Borders." 2-X-1963, 1435 (COL, 
ECON). — 2.5 km. S Sibundoy. "Arborescent 3 m. ; corolla white, 
pendulous. Indian gardens, borders; frequent." 2-X-1963, 1438 
(ECON). — -2 km. SE Sibundoy. Arborescent 4 m. ; corolla pendu- 
lous, white, limb and teeth recurved; fr. terete, fusiform ( 15. 5X3.5 
cm.), indehiscent. Borders, frequent. " 8-X-1963, 1447 (COL, ECON, 
BISH, K, PASTO, S, US). 

Another collection (1111) has both distally dentate 
and entire leaves from the same plant. In addition, the 
calyx is very narrow with the limb partly recurved, and 
the corolla tube is also narrow. Ten to 12 trees occur in 
a single hedge row in the town of Sibundoy. During 
May and early June, 1903, the only Daturas blooming 
in the Valley were this planting and 'Culebra*. The 
owner called this "bui-ish borracherushe" and said that 
the first cuttings had been brought here from further 
south in the Valley, where most of the Sibundoy reside. 

[ 205 ] 



Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. ca. 
2200 rn. — Sibundoy. ' Bui-ish borracherushe". Tree 3.3 in. ; lvs. 

entire or distally toothed ; calyx slender, limb curling : corolla white. 
Hedjre row, infreq." ll-VI-1963, 1111 (COL, KCON, B1SH, K, 

PASTO, S, US). 



2c. 'Ocre' n. cv. Plate LVIL 

Leaves entire, the base acute, ratio of width to length 
. 40*2-. 498, calyx relatively narrow, 1 2. 8-1 5. 9 cm. , corolla 
long, 25.4-31 cm., ochre color, stamens (including their 
adnation to corolla) 16.4-22.6 cm., anthers very long, 
40-44 mm., pistil 17.8-23.8 cm. Fruit not seen. N = 12 

{Bristol 1267). 

This very rare cultivar is unique in the light orange or 
ochraceous color of its flowers. Two plantings are known, 
a single tree near Sibundow and a short hedge row in 
Colon. The present owners of these trees with strikingly 
different flowers showed little interest in them. 

Common names: The onlv name given this cultivar 
by its owners is borrachera (Mnebriant") in Sibundoy and 
borrachero ('inebriant tree") in Colon. In Sibundoy, the 
response tsushie borrachera (/yellow incbriant") was even- 
tually evoked, but it was clear that tsushie was a purely 
descriptive word and not an established phytonym. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. ca. 



4 4 i 



2200 m. — Colon. Borrachero'. Tree 4.5 m. ; corolla light orange; 
not fruiting. Indian garden, very infreq." 25-VI1-1963, 1261 (COL, 
KCON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, US). — 1.5 km. SW Sibundoy. '"Tsa- 
shie borrachera'. Tree 3 in. ; corolla light orange. Indian garden, 
very infreq." 12-VIII-1963, 1297 (COL, KCON, PASTO, US). 



2d. 'Siangan' n. cv. Plate LVL 

Leaves yellowish, entire, ratio of width to length, 
.318-488, calyx length 10. 2-1 6.3 cm., corolla long, 
28-32.9 cm., in some the slender basal part of the tube 
well exposed, stamens (including their adnation to co- 
rolla) 1 9. 9-23, 2 cm. , anthers 37-48 mm. , pistil 21 . 6-24. \ 

[ 206 ] 



Plate LVI 




Cpers.) saff. 

cv. SIANGAN 





Datura Candida (Pers.) Saff. cv. Biangan. Flowering and fruiting 
branches, X^. a, Cross sections of two fruits from the same tree, X J. 



cm., fruit occasional, narrowly fusiform, somewhat 
grooved and ridged, 2 or 3 locular, calyx persistent or 
caducous. N = 12 {Bristol 1431). 

Cv. Biangan is easily recognized by the yellowish 
foliage and, if they are available, the unusual fruits, re- 
sembling those described by S afford (28) for J), suavco- 
lens. A photograph of 'Biangan' flowers appears in Perry 

(27), page 38.5, centre figure. 

Common names : Biangan borrachera, chontaruco bor- 
rachera, danta borrachera. 

The Sibundoy know two deer, a small one {biangan), 
said to be only one half meter high, which lives near the 
marsh in the centre of the Valley, and a larger one (mon- 
g(fjo) of the high mountains and paramos. Chontaruco 
('biangan') may be an Inga term, while danta ('tapir') 
is a widespread indigenous word adopted by Spanish. 
The Sibundoy think of I). Candida 'Biangan 5 as a stimu- 
lant for dogs on hunting trips, but whether their names 
refer to inebriated dogs capturing game animals or to 
the possibility of game animals becoming inebriated 
themselves by browsing on the leaves, is unclear to me. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Yalle de Sibundoy, alt. ca. 



i i i 



2200 m. — Sibundoy. Danta borrachera'. Bush". 29-V-1946, 

Schultes Sf Villarreal 7638{\JS). — Sibundoy. N. v. 'Danta borrachero,' 
Biangan borrachero' (Kamsa). Arbusto de 3 m. Hojas amarillentas. 
Flores vivas, no vistas. (Se toma como estimulante cuando se siente 
cansancio y tambien corao alucinogeno).'" 12-VI-1956, Idrobo 2281 
(COL). — i> km. SE Sibundoy. * Bui-ish borrachera*. Arborescent 
8 m. ; upper lvs. small, yellowish ; firs, (except calyx) white through- 
out. Edge of cornfield." 8-1-1963, 458 (COL, KCON 1 , PASTO).— 



4 4 4 



5 km. SVV Sibundoy. Biangan borrachera*. Arborescent 2.5 in., 

lvs. yellowish green, calyx becoming yellow; corolla white (between 
lobes rounded or very slightly emarginate); no fr." 29-IV-1968, 
890 (COL, KCON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, US).— 5 km. S Sibundoy. 



4 . 4 



Biangan borrachera'. Tree 3.5 m., lvs. yellowish; corolla white; 
fr. green (loose, persistent calyx removed), 2-3 carpellate. Border, 
very infrequent/' 27-VI-1963, 1162 (COL, ECON, K, PASTO, US). 



4 4 4 



— 3 km. S Sibundoy. Biangan borrachera'. 2 m., lvs. yellow- 

green; corolla white; frs, green, 2—3 carpellate, angular and grooved 

[ 208 ] 



(2 carpellate flattened). 18-VII-1963, 1246 (COL, ECON, US).— 2 



4 4 4 



km. SE Sibundoy. Biangan borrachera*. Shrub 2 in. ; leaves and 

calyces yellowish; corolla white. Pasture border, infreq." 27-VIII- 



1968, 1SJ/S ( KCON). — 1.5 km. S Sibundoy. Biangan borrachera'. 

Tree 3.5 m. ; lvs. yellowish: corolla white. Indian garden, very in- 



freq." 30-VIII-196S, 13»6 (ECOS). — 1.5 km. S Sibundoy. 'Bian- 
gan borrachera". Tree 3 m., lvs. yellowish; firs, pendulous, corolla 
white, limb recurved but teeth hanging downward, limb from base 
of tooth to segment edge rolled backward. Indian houseyard, very in- 
freq." 2-X-1963, 14S1 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, US). 



•2e. 'Amaron' n. cv. Plate LVII. 

Leaves deformed, lanceolate to oblong, reaching 4,5 
cm., margin irregularly undulate and obscurely dentate, 
or not vertically undulate and strongly dentate, the 
lateral veins curving near midrib, often forming a slight 



S-curve; ratio of width to length .213.3(54; calyx 9.4 



1>..> cm., corolla 20.3 27.8 cm., the tube relatively 
broad, stamens 13-18.2 cm. (including their adnation to 
corolla), anthers short, 28-34 mm., pistil 14-lu.S cm., 
fruit occasional. N = 12 {Bristol 564 )• 

Cv. Amaron. consisting of several clones, occurs at 
many localities in the Valley, sometimes in extensive 
hedge plantings. Probably there are in excess of 200 
trees. The variable leaves may be lanceolate to narrowly 
oblong and with the margins both horizontally and ver- 
tically undulate and sometimes distally dentate. A few- 
plants have both irregular leaves and leaves similar to 
'BuveV leaves in outline, but with the venation dis- 
torted. Most of the plants grow a little more vigorously 
than the other cultivars, as seen in the greater size of the 
trees, the leaves and fruits and in the thickness of young 
stems. 

Common names: Amaron borrachera,cucu borrachera. 

Amarron (Spanish) 'boa constrictor", a thick, heavy- 
bodied snake. Possibly the name is applied to this cul- 
tivar in recognition of the very thick, young herbaceous 

[ 209 ] 



Plate LVII 





Datura candidal Pers, )SaH. (I pper) Foliage of cv, Amaron. (Lower) 
Kmergent and open flowers of cv. Ocre. 



stems which usually distinguish this from all the other 
cultivars. 

Cucu was given by only one informant. The basic 
meaning of the word among the Sibundoy is not known 
to me. Spanish speakers use it in reference to 'devil* 
(Seijas, pers. comm.). Pazos (26), considering Quechua 
vocabulary in use in Colombia today, gives "Quechua, 
kuku: espantajo, fantasma'\ apparently 'fright, ghost*. 
However, Lira (23), in his exhaustive treatment of Que- 
chua in the Inca heartland in southern Peru, gives the 
following: "JvUKU, adj. Tmmaturo, no maduro, verde 
y duro, fruto verdete sin sazon. Fam. Divieso o quiste 
endurecido/' The familiar application divieso 'furuncle, 
boiT and quiste 'cyst' is the most likely sense of the term 
here, for this cultivar (as well as others) has been used as 
a suppurant in treating boils and cysts. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Puturaayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. 2900- 
3LS0 m. — Road from Sibundoy to Fasto : between La Maria and Paramo 
de San Antonio. "Bush 12 ft. Fl. white." 1 -VI- 1946, Schultes Sf 
Villarreal 7809 (KCON, US). Valle de Sibundoy, alt. 2200 ra.— 3 km. 



k . . 



S Sibundoy. Araarron borrachera'. Tree 3 m. ; corolla yellow 7 upon 

emergence, white expanded. Cultigen; prop, vegetatively ; infre- 
quent." 27-11-1963, 564 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, US). 

— 3 km. S Sibundoy. "Tree 6 m. ; corolla emerging yellow, white 
expanded. Cultigen ; prop, vegetatively: infrequent." 27-11-1963, 
565 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, US).— 3 km. S Sibundoy. 
"Tree 3 m. ; corolla emerging yellow, white expanded. Cultigen; 
prop, vegetatively; infrequent." 27-11-1963, 567 (COL, ECON, 
BISH, K, PASTO, S, US).— 2 km. SW Sibundoy. "Tree 3.5 m. ; 
corolla white. Indian garden, infreq." 14-1V-1963, 775 (ECON).— 



4 4 t 



3 km. S Sibundoy. Amarron borrachera". Tree 4.5 m. ; corolla 
white; frs. green, few. Indian garden, infreq." 10-VI-1963, 1110 
(ECON). — 3 km. S Sibundoy. " 'Amarron borrachera'. Tree 4 m. : 
corolla white; frs. green, few. Indian garden, very infreq." 2-VII- 
1963, 1189 (COL, ECON, US).— 4 km. S Sibundoy. "'Amarron 
borrachera'. Tree 2.5 m. ; corolla white; fr. green. Indian garden, 



very infreq." 7-VII- 1963, 1192 (COL, ECON, US).— Colon. " 'Bor- 

rachero'. Tree 3.5 m. : corolla white, pendulous; fr. green. Border, 
infreq." 16-VII-1963, 1213 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, 
US). — 2 km. S Sibundoy. "'Amarron borrachera'. Tree 3.5 m. ; 

[211] 



corolla white. Border, infreq." 15-VIII-1968, 1305 (COL, ECON, 
BISH, K, PASTO, S, US).— 2 km. SE Sibundoy. " 'Cucu borra- 
chera'. Tree 4 ra. : corolla white. Indian houseyard, infreq." 27- 

VIII-196S, 1346 (ECON). 



2f. 'Salaman' n. cv. 

Leaves long, the margins strongly undulate vertically, 
the distal half greatly deformed and little developed ; 
calyx 9.9-15.1 cm., corolla 23.3-27 cm., stamens 14.8- 
16.9 cm. (including their adnation to corolla), anthers 
relatively very short, 25-28 mm., pistil 15.7-18 cm. ; 
not known to fruit. 

Cv. Salaman is perhaps the rarest of the Datura cul- 
tivars in the Valley. One Sibundoy owns three trees 
derived from a single cutting that he planted years ago; 
it was brought to him from just outside the Valley, 
where the rivers exit through a cleft in the mountains. 



rv\ 



That area is very sparsely settled today, and most of its 
inhabitants are not Indians. A cursory inspection of the 
area failed to locate any tree Datura. 

Common names: Salvanjc borrachera (Kamsa), sala- 
manga borrachera (Inga), salaman borrachera (Spanish). 



Salaman and its variants are employed by the same 



person, the owner of the plants, in the three languages 
which he speaks. 

Colombia : Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. 2200 
ra. — Sibundoy. N. v. Salaman-borrachero', Salvaje-borrachera', 
Arbol de 4 ra. Botones erectos u horizontales. Corolas blancas, aro- 
maticas. Los indios la distinguen como especie, pero parece ser un 
estado intermedio entre el 2207 [not seen] y 2223 [cv. Munchira]." 
12-VI-1956, ldrobo 2224 (COL). — 1.5 km. S Sibundoy. " 'Salamfin 

borrachera' . Narcotic. Tree 5 m. ; corolla white, pendulous ; not fruit- 
ing. A few leaves on young, vigorous shoots are undeformed." 11- 

VI-1963, 1194 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, US). — 1.5 km. 



. . * 



S Sibundoy. Salaman borrachera'. Tree 5 m. ; corolla white, pen- 
dulous; not fruiting. Indian garden, very infreq." 2-X-1963, 1432 
(ECON). 

The oldest of the three trees seen is five meters high, 

[ 212 ] 



about the limit for a tree Datura, and many of its 
branches have small leaves which are onJy two or three 
times longer than the diminutive leaves of 'Munchira', 
which are characteristically the same shape. Observing 
the same trees, J. M. Idrobo had already noted the re- 
semblance to 'Munchira 9 {Idrobo 2224). 

Two unusual flowers (Bristol 1448) were discovered on 
one branch of a 'Salaman* tree. They may be interpreted 
as chimeral in origin. They demonstrate the possibility 
of obtaining striking new cultivars from existing ones by 
vegetative propagation of such anomalous branches. The 
flowers are small, with all parts much shorter than nor- 
mal 'Salaman* flowers, the corollas being only 21.8 and 
22.5 cm. long. Most striking is the failure of the corolla 
limb to complete its growth and recurve. Instead, the 
limb flares only slightly and its margin between the 
teeth, rather than being rounded outward or cordate, is 
concave. The pistil falls far short of the stamens which 
in all other tree Daturas it exceeds. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Yalle de Sibundoy. — 1,5 km. 



t i » 



S Sibundoy. Salaman borrachera\ Tree 4 m. ; aberrant branch 

with 2 small flrs., corolla white, limb flaring only 45 degrees, its 
edges crinkled. Indian garden, very infreq. " 8-X-1963, 1448 (ECON). 

2g. 'Quinde' n. cv. Plate LVIII. 

Leaves very irregular, frequently with two lateral 
veins and their associated laminar tissue in the basal half 
well developed, and the distal half with relatively less 
development; the flowers often somewhat smaller than 
in the other clones, calyx 10.3-15. G cm., corolla 19.7- 
25.2 cm., stamens 13.2-15.9 cm. (including their ad na- 
tion to corolla), anthers relatively short, 26-33 mm., 
pistil 13.1-18.1 cm.; fruit occasional, the calyx some- 
times persistent. N = 12 {Bristol 327, 1304, 1433). 

Common names: Ngunsiana borraehera, quinde bor- 
r acker a, cari borr acker o. 

[ 213 ] 



Ngunsiana (Kamsa) 'hummingbird 5 , according to a 
Sibundoy, from the common long-tailed hummingbird 
of the Valley, the tail and wings of which are represented 
by the leaf of this cultivar. 

Quinde (Inga) 'hummingbird'. 

Cari (lnga>), apparently from KKHARI (Quechua) 
'male* and familiarly, 'valiant, aggressive, energetic 
person' ( fc 2o), suggesting one reason for the psychotropic 

use of this cultivar. 

Chalua borrachero, once recorded, should perhaps be 
discounted, since the Quechua term CH'ALLU 'ripe' 
(23) may have been used by an Inga-speaking informant 
simply to indicate a stage of development, perhaps of 
the fruit. 

Quinde and quinde borrachera are nearly universal 
terms for this cultivar. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. 2200 



. <. i 



m. — Sibundoy. Borrachero' ". 25-V-1935, Garcia- Barriga Jf6Jf0 

(ECON, US). — 3 km. S Sibundoy. * 'Quinde borrachera'. Tree 8 
in. ; corolla emerging yellow, white expanded ; bearing mature fruit. 
Cultigen ; prop, vegatatively ; infrequent." 27-11-1963,566 (COL, 



KCON, B1SH, K, PASTO, US).— 4 km. SE Sibundoy. Quinde 
borrachera*. Tree 4 m. ; corolla white; frs. green. Border; very in- 
freq." 15-VI-1963, 1121 (COL, KCON, K, PASTO, S, US). — 1.5 

km. SW Sibundoy, Shrub C J m. ; corolla white. Indian garden, very 

infreq." 12-VIII-1963, 1299 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, 

US). — 1.5 km. S Sibundoy. ' 'Quinde borrachera'. Tree 2.5 m. ; 
corolla white. Indian garden, very infreq/' 1 5-YII 1-1963, 1304 
(ECON). — 1.5 km. VV Sibundoy. "'Quinde borrachera'. Arbores- 
cent 3.5 m. ; corolla white: fr. terete, green. Indian garden, very 

infreq." 22-VIII-1963, 1333 (ECON).— 2.5 km. S Sibundoy. 

Quinde borrachera'. Shrub 2.5 m. ; corolla white, pendulous; 
fruit green. Indian garden, very infreq."" 2-X-1968, 14&4 (ECON). 



. i i 



4 i 4 



— 2.5 km. S Sibundoy. Quinde borrachera". Arborescent 4 m. ; 

corolla white, pendulous; fr, fusiform, indehiscent. Indian garden, 
very infreq. " 2-X-1963, 1489 (ECOS). Valle de Sibundoy, alt. 2500- 



i i i 



2000 m. — 2 kin. NW Sibundoy. Quinde borrachera". Arborescent 
8.5 ra. ; corolla white. Secondary growth, far from any sign of dwell- 
ing. Solitary plant." 29-V-1963, 1080 (COL, ECON). 3 km. N San 



4 4 4 



Pedro. Munchira'. Arbusto 2.5 m. ; flor blanca." 9-VIII-1963, 

Junjibioy Chimloy 190 (COL, KCON, US). 

[ 214 ] 



Plate LVIII 




Datura Candida (Pers.) Saff. cv. Quinde. Flowering and fruiting 



branches, 




h 



Hernando Garcia- Barriga collected the earliest speci- 
men that I have seen, and L credit him as the discoverer, 
in 1935, of the peculiar tree Datura cultivars of the 
Sibundoy. 



2h. 'Munchira' n. cv. Plates L1II, LIX. 

Appearing stunted, usually 1.5-2 m. high, but reach- 
ing li m. with age, the branches short and twisted, with 



scarcely elongated internodes, leaves relatively minute, 
variously much deformed, especially distally, calyx short, 
9.8-12 cm., corolla 21.2-29 cm., stamens 15-16.7 cm, 
(including their adnation to corolla), anthers short, 27- 
30 mm., pistil 14.2-21.3 mm.; not known to fruit. 
N = 12 (Bristol 1268). 

These striking, stunted plants are among the rarer, for 
there may be no more than 15 in existence. If one of 
these treelets be pollarded or cut back to the ground, 
one or more vigorous shoots arise, as with all the culti- 
vars, and there is no sign of stunting for several months. 
Perry (27) illustrated a flowering branch of this cultivar 
being examined by Salvador Chindoy and me (p. 335, 
top figure). 

Common names: Munchira borrachera. 

Munchira (Inga) 'caterpillar* alludes to the appearance 
of the leaves which seem to be (but definitely are not) 
munchiradas 'caterpillar eaten*. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle tie Sibundoy, alt. ^200 
in. — Sibundoy. X. v. Munchira', Sufrutex y arbusto hasta de 2 
in.; con rarnas muy tortuosas ; tronco principal y ramas primarias 
cubiertas de musgo. La atrofia en las hojas se dice que prevalece en 
todos los clones. Muy conocido para tomar como estupefaciente : vernri- 
fuffo. Se dice que el principio es muy activo. Botones florales hori- 

zontales y pendulos." 12-VI-1956, hlrobo 22 &3 (COL). — 1.5 km. S 



4 4 4 



Sibundoy. Munchira borrachera\ Narcotic. Tree 8 in. ; corolla 

white: never fruiting. Indian dooryard, very infreq." :26-VIl-19i>:i, 



1268 (COL, KCON, BISH, K, PASTO, S, US). — San Andres. Ar- 
borescent 1.8 in.; corolla white. Indian garden, very infreq.** 20- 

VIII-1963, 1311 (ECON). 

[ 216] 



Plate LIX 




Datura Candida (Pers.) Saff. cv. Munchira. Flowering branch, Xj, 
and habit. 



2i. 'Culebra' n. cv. Plates LX, LXL 

Methysticodendron Amesianum li. E. Schultes Hot. 

Mus. Leafi. Harvard Univ. 17: 2. 1955. 

Leaves narrowly linear-ligulate, ratio of width to 
length .036 .092, margin undulate: calyx distally in- 
flated, 10.3-15.8 cm. ; corolla shortest among the culti- 
vars, 15. 1-24. 5 cm. (excluding the relatively short teeth), 
deeply divided (through J of total length) into long spat- 
ulate lobes; stamens 12-16 cm. (including their adnation 
to corolla), the filaments distally and irregularly con- 
torted, anthers 2,5-32 mm. ; pistil shortest among the 
cultivars, 9-12.1 cm., with a variable number (2-4) of 
incompletely coherent styles exceeded by the stamens, 
the ovary often three-locular and with one or more vari- 
ably developed appendages homologous with the styles. 
Fruiting rarely or never. N = 12 (3, 7). (For an exhaus- 
tive and illustrated description, including details of pol- 
len morphology, see Schultes 19.55.) 

While strikingly different from all other Datura cul- 
tivars in the Valley of Sibundoy, there is little justifica- 
tion for excluding cv. Culebra from the srenus Datura 



(3, 5, 7, 35, 37). Aberrant forms bearing a resemblance 
to this one have been observed in D. Stramonium, and 
also in a single, but very distinct, tree Datura collection 

from elsewhere in Colombia (7). 

The origin of "Culebra" is unknown, but it may safely 
be assumed to derive from one of the white flowered tree 
Daturas, and it is tentatively placed with D. Candida. 
With the exception of Datura 'Andres*, a putative hy- 
brid between D. Candida and J), suavcolcns Humb. & 
Bonpl. ex Willd., all of the other white flowered culti- 
vars in the Valley belong with D. Candida. As with 
these cultivars, 'Culebra' is known only from the Valley 
of Sibundoy, and hence it can be considered a member 
of the same D. Candida complex for the present 

[ 218 ] 



Plate LX 




Dat 



lira 



Candida (Pers.) Saff. cv. Culebra. Flowering branch, X^. 



Studying material grown at Bogota, Theilkuhl found 
62.7 per cent of the flowers to be bilocular, the remainder 
being triloculare a rare condition in the Solanaceae. Wit! 



i 



regard to the possible failure to form fruit, it is interest- 
ing to note that, in Bogota, the styles "usually beuin to 



^ w~ ..^,v^ ^....v, ... ~~^ 



wilt before the opening of the anthers"*, thus eliminating 
the possibility of self fertilization (35). 

Schultes recalled his lost collections of fruit as fusiform 
and about six inches in length, "very like the fruit of 
I), suaveolens*' (29). This description, and the observa- 
tions of both 2- and 3-Iocwlar ovaries suggest the fruits 
of I). Candida 'Biangan'. 

The possibility of a hybrid origin cannot be eliminated, 
but it is clear that 'Culebra' is not morphologically in- 
termediate between I). Candida and either I), suaveolens 
or I), sanguinea. 

Common names: Mutscuai Itorrachcra. culcbra borra- 
chcra. 

Mutscuai ( Kamsa) and culchra (Spanish) mean 'snake*, 
in reference to the lonu slender leaves. 



Reports (29) of other names applicable to this cultivar 

arise either from uninformed natives (to many, the trees 
are little known though a subject of curiosity), or from 
misunderstandings in widely ranging conversation (in- 
formed individuals may discuss much more than the in- 
formation solicited, perhaps without the interrogator's 

awareness). 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. 2200 
in. Los alrededores deSibundoy. Nombre kamsa :kiiide-borrachera. 
Nombre castellano : culebra borrachera. I'sed in Sibundoy bv Kamsa 
Indians as a divinatory narcotic and poison." 16-11-1942, Schultes 

3256 (COL, KCON, IS). Cotype Methysticodendron Amesianum U.K. 
Schultes. ) — Sibundoy. 44 Culebra borrachero\ In garden near house 
of an Indian herb doctor. Krect shrub 3-4 m. tall, Hs. white, some- 
what irregular. Plant apparently sterile, as old Hs. seem to drop off, 
ami the people say it never sets fruit. Planted here, not seen wild/' 
K)-III-1943, Fosberg 20406(US).— "Tree 20 ft. tall. Cult, in Indian 

[ 220 ] 



Plate LXI 



■ 



__*ft^. 







Habit of Datura Candida (Pers.) Satf". cv. Culebra. 



herb garden." 21-11-1951, Villarreal 68 (ECON).— "N. v. 'Culebra 
borrachera'. Arbol tie 2-2,50 in. tie altura. Flores blancas. Los in- 
dios mastican sus hojas para embriagarse. " 6-II-1958, Mora 1023 
(COL). — Sibundoy. Treelet 25 feet tall. Cultivated in Intlian gar- 
den. Culebra borrachera'. I setl as a divinatory narcotic. Mowers 

white, anthers yellow." SO-VI-1953, Schultes 8f Cabrera 20079 (GH). 

( Cotype Methysticodendron Amesianum. ) — Santiago. * Culebra borra- 
chera'. Arbolito tie 2-8 in. de alto. Flores blancas. Cultivado por los 
indigenas. Kl liquido resultante por la deeoccion de las hojas It) toman 
para alucinarse". 22-IX-1953, Fema/alez 2641 (COL). — Sibundoy. 
N. v. Culebra-borrachero', Mtzkway borrachera (Kamsa). Arbusto 
hasta tie t in. ; rnuy folioso. Flores blancas, pendulas, aromaticas por 
la noche. Lsado por medicos como narcotico, para emborracbarse, 
para resfriados y contra hinchazones. Se reproduce solo por estacas. 
Se dice que rara vez da frutos, que son cilindricos, como un banano. " 

12-VI-1956, Idrobo 2221 (COL). — 1.5 km. S Sibundoy. " 'Culebra 

borrachera*. Medicinal. Arborescent 8 m. ; corolla white; not fruit- 
ing, Indian garden, very infreq," 13-IV-1963, 764 (COL, ECON, 



HISH, K, PASTO, S, LIS). — Sibundoy. Culebra borrachera'. Tree 
8.5 in.; corolla white, not fragrant, emerging irregularly folded. 
Garden, very infreq." 26-IV-1963, 888 (ECON).— Sibundoy. " 'Cu- 
lebra borrachera'. Tree 3,5 m. ; unopened calyx bulging at top ; corolla 

white; filaments often bent, anthers seldom straight ; no fruits. (Jar- 

den, very infreq." 1 l-VI-1983, 1112 (COL, ECON, BISH, K, 



i « ( 



PASTO, S, US). — 2 km. SW Sibundoy. Culebra borrachera 9 . Tree 
\ m. ; firs, pendulous, corolla white; corolla and filaments often bent 
irreg. Indian garden, very infreq." I9-IX-1963, 1391 (ECON).— 



. . t 



1.5 km. S Sibundoy. Culebra borrachera'. Tree 3 m. ; firs, pendu- 
lous, corolla white, bent. Intlian garden, infreq." 21-IX-1968, 1400 
(KCON) — San Francisco, Culebra Borrachera.' Sparsely branch- 

ing, brittle shrub, 1 . 5-2.5 m. Flowers white. Infusion of leaves taken 
as hallucinogen. Found only in cultivation." 22-VIII-1964, Olday 

639 (ECON). 



Datura 'Andres' n. ev. 

Leaves lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, ratio of width 
to length .334-. 443; calyx 11.6 IS cm., terminating in 

2 .5 lobes: corolla nearly the longest known in the genus, 
31.3-43.2 cm., the slender basal part of the tube exceed- 
ing the calyx, the corolla teeth \\ ."i.8 cm., the limb only 
slightly recurved; anthers distinct, 31-36 mm., stamens 
very long, 2.5.7 31.6 cm., pistil with 1-3 pronounced 

I 222 



curves in the region of the anthers, exceptionally long, 
32.8-39.8 cm. ; not known to fruit. 

Selecting seven characters which most frequently dis- 
tinguish D. Candida from D. suaveolens, I find that in 
three, the leaf shape, calyx apex and corolla tooth length, 
'Andres' is intermediate. In the length of its corolla and 
the conspicuous slender basal part of the tube, it is simi- 
lar to D. suaveolens, but the calyx width and free anthers 
are like those of 79. Candida. The S-curved style is unique 
among the tree Daturas. There seems little alternative 
for the present but to interpret cv. Andres as a hybrid 
between D. Candida and 1). suaveolens. 

Common names: Andaqui borrachera. 

Andaqui is the name of a now almost extinct Indian 
tribe to the northeast at the head of the Magdalena Val- 
ley. The area lies many days' journey away, mostly 
throusrh the eastern lowlands. 



On the assumption that 'Andres' is a hybrid derivative 
of D. suaveolens, a lowland species not known to occur 
in the Valley of Sibundoy, it is probable that it was 
brought to the Valley from the eastern lowlands, or pos- 
sibly directly from the Upper Magdalena area of the 
Andaqui people. In the immediate eastern lowland area, 
Datura is represented by several collections {King 1SS0, 

A, GH, NY, US; Cuatrecasas 10752, US; Schultes 

3472, Gil) which resemble 'Andres' but have connivent 

anthers and lack a curved style, and thus approximate 

1). suaveolens more. 

Reference to Datura dolichocarpa (Lagerh.) Safford 

in the Valley of Sibundoy (36) is probably to D. Candida 

'Andres'. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Valle de Sibundoy, alt. 2200 
m. — San Andres. Shrub 2.5 m. ; corolla white. Border, infreq. 18- 
III-1963, 650 (COL, ECON, PASTO, US).— San Andres. Arbores- 
cent 3 ra. ; corolla white; style with S-curve in region of anthers. 
Roadside, infreq. 20-VIII-1963, 1314 (ECON).— 2 km. SE Sibun- 

[ 223 ] 



Hi 



doy. Andaqui borrachera'. Tree 2.5 m. ; corolla penduluos, white. 
Indian garden, very infreq." 10-X-1963, 1AA9 (ECON). 



Acknowledgments 



The investigations upon which this report is based 
were supported by a Public Health Service Research 
Grant (MH 00941-01), by Harvard University and by 
the American Anthropological Association. Much of 
the report was written during the tenure of a Public 
Health Service Postdoctoral Fellowship (l-F2-( i M- 
24,938-01). The University of Hawaii provided for the 
illustrations. Aid given by officers of these institutions 
was essential and is sincerely appreciated. 

The following persons have offered suggestions for 
improving the foregoing presentation: YV. C. Evans, 
C. B. Heiser, Jr., Linda Howard. R. P. Kahn, N. P. 
Ivefford, C. S. K. Raju, R. E. Schultes and Hay dee 
Seijas. 1 thank each one but do not hold them respon- 
sible. 

I am also grateful to Sharvn Amii for her meticulous 
care in the preparation of drawings for six plates. 



[ >>>1\ ] 



LITERATURE CITED 



1. Avery, A.G., S. Satina and J. Rietsema. 19.59. Blakeslee: The 
Genus Datura. Ronald Press, New York, xli + 289 pp. 

2. Barclay, A. S. 1959a. New considerations in an old genus " Datura. 
Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 18: 245-272. 9 illus. 

3. - — — . 1959b. Studies in the genus Datura (Solanaceae) I. Tax- 
onomy of subgenus Datura. Doct. dissert., Harvard Univ., Cam- 
bridge. 221 pp. 

4. Bose, B.C., M.A. Matin, R. Vijayvargiya and M. Lahiry. 1966. 
Effect of solanaceous alkaloids on the 5-hydroxytryptamine con- 
tent of rat brain. Journ. Pharm. Pharmacol. 18: 690. 



5. Bristol, M. L. 1965. Sibundoy ethnobotany. Doct. dissert. , Har- 
vard Univ., Cambridge. 361 pp. 

6. . 1966a. The psychotropic Banisteriopsis among the Sibundoy 

of Colombia. Bot. Mus. Leaf!. Harvard Univ. 21: 113-140. 2 
illus. 

7. . 1966b. Notes on the species of tree Daturas. Bot. Mus. 

Leaf!. Harvard Univ. 21: 229-248. 4 illus. 



8. . 1969. Sibundoy agricultural vegetation. Proc. 37th IntnT 

Congr. of Americanists, Mar del Plata. (In press.) 

9. Castellvi, P. Marcelino de. 1962. Censo indolinguistieo de Co- 
lombia. Amazonia Colomb. Americanista 6, no. 1 1 extra, 20-34. 

10. Claus, E.P. and V.E. Tyler, Jr. 1965. Pharmacognosy. Lea & 
Febiger, Philadelphia. 5th ed. 572 pp. 

11. Evans, W.C. and M. Pe Than. 1962. The alkaloids of the genus 
Datura, section Brugmansia. Part I. D. cornigera Hook. Journ. 
Pharmacy and Pharmacol. 14: 147-156. 

12. Evans, W.C. and W.J. Griffin. 1963. The alkaloids of the genus 
Datura, section Brugmansia. Part II. New monotigloyl esters of 
the leaves of D. cornigera Hook. Journ. Chem. Soc. 832: 4348- 
4350. 

13. Evans, W.C, Valerie A. Major and M. Pe Than. 1965. The 
alkaloids of the genus Datura, section Brugmansia. III. Datura 
sanguinea It. & P. Planta Medica, 13. Jahr. : 353-358. 

[ 225 ] 



14. Evans, W.C. and Valerie A. Major. 1966. The alkaloids of the 
genus Datura, section Brugmansia. Part IV. New alkaloids of 
/). sanguined It. & P. Journ. Chem. Soc. (C), 1 6*2 1 — 1 623. 

15. Gottschalk, Werner. 1954. Die Chromosomenstruktur der Solan- 
aceen. Chromosonia ti: 539—626. Illus. 

16. Heiser, Cliarles, Jr. 1963. Numeracion chromosomica de plantas 
ecuatorianas. Ciencia y Naturaleza 6, no. 1 : 2-6. 

IT. Henry, T.A. 1949. The Plant Alkaloids. Blakiston, Philadel- 
phia. 4th ed. 804 pp. 

18. Howard, Linda. 1967. Cams a phonology. MS. 

19. Juajibioy Ch. , Alberto. 19(52. Breve estudio preliminar del grupo 
aborigen de Sibundoy y su lengua Kamsa en el sur de Colombia. 
Bol. del Inst, de Antropol. (Medellin) 2: 3-33, 9 illus. 

20. Juajibioy Ch., Pedro. 1960. Datos recogidos sobre las hojas de 
la planta borrachera. MS., Botanical Museum, Harvard Univ., 

Cambridge. 

21. Kahn, It. P. and It. Bartels. The Colombian Datura virus — a new- 
virus in the potato virus Y group. Phytopathology, (in press.) 

22. Kreig, Margaret B. 196k Green Medicine: The search for plants 
that heal. . . . Rand McNally, New York. 94-96. 

23. Lira, J. A. 1945. Diccionario Kkechuwa-Espanol. Tucuman. 

1200 pp. 

24. Ortiz, S.E. 1954. Estudios sobre linguistica aborigen de Colom- 
bia. Bogota. 503 pp. 

25. Pachter, I.J. and Alice F. Hopkinson. I960. Note on the alka- 
loids of Methysticodendron amesianum. Journ. Amer. Pbarm. As- 
soc., Sci. Ed., 49: 621-622. 

26. Paz os, Arturo. 1966. Glosario de quechuismos colombianos. Im- 
prenta del Departamento, Pasto. 147 pp. 

27. Perry, Roger. 1963. The Daturas and the Valley of Sibundoy. 
Gardeners Chron. Gardening Illus. Nov. 4. 334-335. 5 illus. 



28. Safford, W.E. 1921. Synopsis of the genus Datura, Journ. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. 11: 173-189. 3 illus. 

29. Schultes, It. K. 1955. A new narcotic genus from the Amazon 
slope of the Colombian Andes. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 



17 : 1-1 1. 4 illus. 



[ 226 ] 



30. . 1961. Native narcotics of the New World. Texas Journ. 

Pharmacv2: 141-167- 15 illus. 



31. . 1963a. Hallucinogenic plants of the New World. Har- 
vard Rev. 1 : 18-32. 



32. ^ — . 1963b. Botanical sources of the New World narcotics. 

Psychedelic Rev. 1 : 145-166: in The Psychedelic Reader, Uni- 
versity Rooks, New Hyde Park, 89-110 (l965). 

33. . 1965. Ein Halbes Jahrhundert Ethnobotanik Amerikan- 

ischer Halluzinogene. Zeit. fur Arzneipfl. 13: 125-157. 17 illus. 

34. Seijas, Haydee. 1967. Sibundoy ethnomedicine. MS. 

35. Theilkuhl, J.F. 1957. Introduction al estudio del Methy sticoden- 
dron Amesianum. Dissert., Univ. Nacional, Bogota. 67 pp. 

36. Uscategui M., Nestor. 1959. The present distribution of nar- 
cotics and stimulants amongst the Indian tribes of Colombia. Bot. 
Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 18: 273-304. Map: in Rev. Acad. 
Colomb. 11: 215-228. 9 illus. (l96l). 

37. van Steenis, C. G.G.J. 1957. Specific and infraspecific delimita- 
tion. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, vol. 5: clxvii-ccxxxiii. 

3S, Yepes A., Silvio. 1953. Introduccion a la etnobotanica colombi- 
ana. Publ. Soc. Colomb. Etnol., No. 1: 6-48. 



[ 22 



/ 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Camukidge, Massachusetts, June 25, 1 9«J9 Vol. 22, No. 6 



DE PLANTIS TOXICAH1IS E MUNDO 
NOVO TROPICALE COMMENTATIONES V 

Firola as an orally administered hallucinogen 

I5Y 

Richard Evans Schultes 



In 1954, the source of a new hallucinogenic snuff from 
the northwest Amazon was identified as the resin of 



to 



several species of the myristicaceous genus Virola (1 
The species employed amongst Indians of the Amaz< 
ian region of Colombia were firola caloplnjlla Warbu 
V. calophylloidea Markgraf and probably also V. elong 

(Benth.) Warburg. 

Additional but often rather vague reports seemed 
indicate that this same kind of snuff was prepared and 
utilized in the headwaters of the Orinoco in Venezuela 
(15, 27, 29) and to the north of the llio Negro of Brazil 
(4,8,9,14,27). Eventually, specimens and photographs 
documented the use of Virola-bark for this purpose in 
that part of Brazil (24). Finally, in 19G8, a detailed 
ethnotoxicological study of these myristicaceous snuffs 
(23) showed that the species employed, apparently to 
the exclusion of others, by diverse groups of Waika In- 
dians of northern tributaries of the Rio Negro in Brazil 
is Virola theiodora (Spr. ex Benth.) Warburg. 

In the absence of phytochemical analysis of the snuff 
or of the resin from which it was made, the identity of 
the active principle of Virola calophylla and V. calo- 

[ 229 ] 



phylloidea was not known, and the suggestion that the 
psychoactive properties of the snuff might be attributable 
to myristicine or some component of it was offered (17). 

Recent investigation of Virola theiodora, however, lias 
shown that the resin is rich in tryptamines (2). The 
nyakwana snuff of the Waikas, prepared from resin of 

Virola theiodora with no admixture, contains approxi- 
mately 8% of 5-methoxy N, N-dimethyltryptamine, N, 
N-dimethyltryptamine and traces of other tryptamines 

Because of similarity of the psychoactivity of the snuff 
prepared from Virola theiodora and that from V. ealo- 
phylla and V. calophylloidea, there is now every reason 
to presume that the latter two species owe their effects 
to the same or similar tryptamines as those found in the 
former. These compounds have also been indicated in 
an analysis of the bark of Virola calophylla (13). 

As a result of recent chemical studies, Virola must 
now be added to the list of South American hallucino- 
gens the effects of which are due to tryptamines. These 
tryptaminic narcotics include Anadenanthera peregrin a 
and other species of this leguminous genus; Mimosa 

hostilis; Banisteriopsis Rusbyana; Psychotria psychotriae- 
folia; and possibly Justicia pectoralis var. stenophylla. 

Recent Held work in the vicinity of Leticia, Colombia, 
on the Amazon River, has uncovered an interesting new 
method of employing myristicaceous resin orally as a 
psychotomimetic agent. 

In February, 1969, I was engaged in collecting for 

phytochemieal study several species of Virola along the 
Rio Loretoyacu near Leticia. One of my native assistants 
was a Witoto Indian — Luis Vargas Martinez — who had 
lived in this region for more than 25 years and with whom 
L had worked over a number of years, lie is a native of 
El Kncanto on the Rio Karaparana, an affluent of the 

[ '230 ] 



Plate LXII 




Area of the Colombian Amazon inhabited by the Witoto Indians. 



[ 231 ] 



Rio Putumayo, which, with its parallel river, the Iga- 
' raparana, comprises the major centre of the Witoto In- 
dians (5, 12, 20, 25, 26). As a result of the nefarious and 
merciless exploitations and slaughter of these Indians 
during the wild rubber boom, this region attracted, at 
least fleetingly, world-wide attention in the early part 
of the present century. The past 40 years, with mission- 
ary contacts, have seen a gradual acculturation of the 
Witotos, and many of their beliefs and customs have 
been altered or have disappeared. This acculturation may 
possibly explain our delay in discovering such an inter- 
esting and unique method of preparing and utilizing 
Jlrola-vesm as an hallucinogen. 

During the collecting of the bark from several species 
of riro/a % this Witoto assistant informed me that the 
Witotos of his father's generation ate pellets made of 
cumala resin when they wanted to "see and converse with 
the little people". Cumala, a Peruvian name lor several 
species of Jlrola, is employed in the Trapecio Amazonico 
— the Leticia area. The assistant informed me that the 
species of Urola which his people employed did not exist 
or was very rare in the Rio Lore toy acu area, but he did 
describe it as a medium-sized tree, slender, growing well 
above the flood-lands on ticrra alta. The leaf, according 
to the informant, is "dry" to the appearance, measuring 
about six inches in length, with undulating margins. The 
bark, from which copious red resin exudes, is thin, light 
brown. The Witoto name of the tree in the Kio Kara- 
parana is oo-koo-na. 

While it was impossible for us to collect a voucher 
specimen in the Kio Loretoyacu, I believe that the spe- 
cies represents Virola tliciodora. In 1942, amongst the 
Witotos of the Kio Karaparana region, ] collected (U.K. 



Schultes 3878 l ) Virola tliciodora with the annotation that 

Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Karaparana, along path from El En- 

[ 2 3 2 ] 



it was "intoxicating". I could get no further informa- 
tion at that time. The Witoto name of this plant in the 
Rio Karaparana was oo-koo-na, the same name given to 
me by the informant, but this Indian name may refer 
generically to more than one species of Virola or even 



to species in related genera. A collection (It. T. Martin 
et C.A. Lau-Cam 1272) of Dyalanthcra parviflora from 
the Rio Napo in adjacent Peru, for example, bears the 

Witoto name u-ku-na. 

The Witotos rasp the inner part of the freshly stripped 
bark, roll the rasped tissue into balls and express the 
resin from it into a pot of water which is boiled for five 
or six hours, until the mass becomes a thick syrup that 
sticks to the wooden paddle that has been used to stir 

the boiling mixture. 

While this operation is progressing with the resin of 
Virola, another Indian reduces to ashes the bark of a 
"large tree with long leaves, like matamatd" that grows 
in fioodland. We were fortunate in being able to collect 
flowering material of this tree in the Rio Loretoyacu 
region : it represents G-ustavia Poeppigiana Berg ex 
Martius. 2 The Witoto name of this tree is he-rog. 

The ashes are placed in a funnel made of strong leaves, 
and cool water is poured over the ashes and allowed to 
seep through until "no more cloudiness leaches out 
The water is then slowly boiled down until a greyish 
residue or "salt" is left. This is known in Witoto as 
Ic-sa. 






canto to La Chorrera. "Small tree. Height 40 ft. Red resin in bark. 
Intoxicating. Witoto: oo-koo-na". May 31-June 2, 1942. R.E. 

Schultes 8878. 

2 Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Loretoyacu, 3 km. aboye Puerto 
Narino. In lowland forest. "Tree 7 m. tall. Leaves dark green, 
shiny. Petals white, stamens yellow. Fruit green, seeds germinating 
within ripe fruit." January 28-February 7, 1969. T. Plowman, T. 
Lockxvood, H. Kennedy et R.E. Schultes 2^.32. 

[ '133 ] 



The thickened Piro/a-resin is then rolled with the 
fingers into tiny pellets the size of coffee beans, and these 
are rubbed in the salt-like residue from the leached-out 
lecythidaceous bark ashes. The pellets, thus coated, are 
ingested whole or dissolved in water and drunk. From 
three to six pellets — called oo-koo-hc — are taken initial- 
ly, and the intoxication is said to begin within five 
mintes and last up to two hours. More pellets may be 
taken when the effects of the drug begin to lessen in 
intensity. 

According to my informant's description, all kinds of 
visual hallucinations are experienced. The narcotic is 
taken usually in a group comprising from three to eight 
or more men, normally including the paye or witch- 
doctor. Only the paye may take the initiative in pre- 
paring the drug. Lt is taken not regularly but at irregular 
intervals when the need arises, and only for divination, 
to "see and converse with the little people"', to prophecy, 
to find lost property, to "study", to "talk with"* people 
from other tribes over great distances and to ensure luck 
in the hunt. 

Dr. Horacio Calle, anthropologist at the Universidad 
Nacional de Colombia, has recently sent me some very 
interesting data and botanical specimens collected from 
informants of the Muinane tribe, now living in the vi- 
cinity of Leticia. These Indians lived originally in the 
Karaparana-Igaraparana-Kahuinari area, the general re- 
gion inhabited by the Witotos. 

According to Calle, the Muinanes call the Virola tree 



kutrucu and the drug prepared from its resin kutru. The 
related Bora tribe likewise knows the narcotic which, in 
their language, is kurru. 

Several very young leaves, collected by Calle, are 
difficult to identify as to species. According to Calle, 
botanists at the Instituto de Ciencias Xaturales in Bogota 

[ 234 ] 



Plate LXIII 



'-fcfieiodorxi/ 




(Svr. ex 3tk) 




[ '2V> 



>>o 



tentatively referred them to one of the following speeies : 

Virola elongata, V. peruviana (A. DC.) Warburg or V. 
calophylloidea. His Indian informant stated that there 
are several 4 'kinds of ucuna, some with leaves larger than 
others", but that the tree with the smallest leaves is 
"the true ucuna", i.e., meaning probably the Virola 
employed to prepare the hallucinogen. These Virola 
leaves which Calle collected are now preserved in the 
Economic Herbarium of Oakes Ames and appear to me 
possibly to represent V. calophylloidea* 

The data concerning the admixture which Calle re- 
ports are perhaps even more interesting. In preparing 
the pellets for ingestion, the Muinane informant stated 
that the Virola-bark, freshly stripped from the tree, is 
crushed and boiled in water, until the liquid is thick and 
of a honey-like consistency. This syrup is then mixed 
with ashes of the rind of fruit of a species of Thcobroma 
or of the dried leaves of a palm, Jfauriticl/a aculeata 
(HI3K.) Burret. The mixture is then rolled into soft, 
brownish pellets. 

It would seem, thus, that there is some variation in the 
methods of preparing the drug. Further field work in the 
original home region of these Indians will be necessary 
for a full understanding of this interesting hallucinogen. 



Interest in this newly discovered hallucinogen does not 

lie wholly within the bounds of anthropology and ethno- 
botany. It bears very directly on certain pharmacological 
matters, and, when considered with other plants with 
psychotomimetic properties due to tryptamines, this 

new oral drug poses problems which must now be faced 
and, if possible, toxicologically explained. 

It is generally accepted pharmacologically that the 
pure compound N, N-dimethyltryptamine is inactive 






Comisaria del Amazonas, 8 km. north of Leticia. Muinane name 



kutruku. April 1909. //. Calle sin. num. 



when administered orally, unless accompanied by a mono- 
amine oxidase inhibitor ((>)• The tryptamines — especially 
N, N-dimethyltryptamine — are the active constituents 
of hallucinogenic snuffs of South America (2, 6, 18, *J2, 
27) prepared from Anadenanthera percgrina (yopo), 



/. col ub 



via thciodora and probably 



(yakee 



Y 



ho de vurema, prepared from 



Mimosa hostilis (11), the active constituent of which is 
N, N-dimethyltryptamine, is extremely active when 
taken orally. It has furthermore recently been learned 
that the two common admixtures of the ayahuasca, caapi 
or yaje drink prepared basically from bark of either Banis- 
teriopsis Caapi or B. inebrians, rich in harmala alkaloids, 
are leaves containing N, N-dimethyltryptamine : Banis- 
teriopsis Rusbyana (1, 6, 1(5) and Psychotria psychotriae- 

folia (7). There is no question but that the addition of 
leaves of Psychotria psychotriaefolia and especially of 
Banister iopsis Rusbyana very strongly enhances the color 
visions, increases the intoxication and prolongs the nar- 
cotic effects of the drink. In the case of these two ad- 
mixtures, it is clear that, when added to a bevera 

ds, harmine and harmaline, 
they would be in the presence of monoamine oxidase 
inhibitors. As has recently been suggested, ". . . perhaps 
this fact, coupled with the presence of small amounts of 
related isomers, may help account for the effectiveness 

or "perhaps the strong 



d 



9 5 



th 



dentified substances facilitate ab 



In the instance of yurema, which is prepared appar- 
ently from the roots of Mimosa hostilis with no admix- 
ture whatsoever, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor might 
possibly be present, but we do not yet know. With the 
orally administered Jlrola-res'm of the Witotos, one 



[ 237 ] 



must assume that the tryptamine acts without such an 
inhibitor or else that the residue from the leaching of the 
lecythidaceous bark-ashes contains a monoamine oxidase 
inhibitor. 

All of this points out with singularly insistent empha- 
sis the wisdom of an interdisciplinary approach in the 
search for new psychoactive drugs, since the value of 
folklore data has so often in recent studies been indicated 
(18). It points further to the urgency of intensive ethno- 
toxicological study of folklore in view of the rapid dis- 
integration and disappearance of aboriginal cultures 
around the world (19, 21). 

The field work during which the discovery reported in 
this paper was made was financially supported in part by 
the Bache Fund of the National Academy of Science, 
to which source grateful acknowledgment is herewith 

offered. 

This paper was read at the 10th Annual Meeting of 
the Society for Economic Rotany, Longwood Gardens, 
Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, April 14, 10G9. 



[ 238 ] 



REFERENCES 



1. Agurell, S., B. Holmstedt and J.-E. Lindgren. Alkaloid con- 
tent of Banisteriopsis Rnsbyana" in Am. Journ. Pharm. 140 ( 1 968 ) 
148-151. 

2. Agurell, S., B. Holmstedt, J.-E, Lindgren and R.E. Schultes. 
4 'Alkaloids in certain species of Virola and other South American 
plants of ethnopharmacologic interest" Acta Chem. Scand., in 

press. 



i i-WT.I 1 «« . 



3. Altschul, S. von R. Vilca and its use" in Ethnopharmacolo- 
gic search for psychoactive drugs" ( 1 96?) 307-314. 



4. Becher, H. Die Surara und Pakidai, zwei Yanonami Stamme 
in nordwestbrasilien" Mitteil. Mus. Volkerkunde Hamburg 26 
(i960) 1-138. 

5. Collier, R. "The river that God forgot" (1968). 



6. Der Marderosian, A., H.V. Pinkley and M.F. Dobbins. Native 
use and occurrence of N, N-dimethyltryptamine in the leaves of 
Banisteriopsis Rusbyana" Am. Journ. Pharm. 140 (1968) 137-147. 

7. Der Marderosian, A. Personal communication. 

8. Ducke, A. Arch. Inst. Biol. Veg. 4 (l9S7) 3. 

9. . "As lejruminosas da Amazonia brasileira" (l939) 41. 



10. Farnsworth, N. and K. Euler. An alkaloid screening procedure 
utilizing thin-layer chromatography" Lloydia 25 (1962) 186-195. 

11. Gongalves de Lima, O. "Observances sobre o 'vinho de jurema' 
utilizado pelos indios Pancaru de Tacaratu (Pernambucoj ' Arqu. 
Inst. Pesqu. Agron. 4 (l946) 45-80. 



12. Hardenberg, W.E. The Putumayo — the devil's paradise 
(1912). 

13. Holmstedt, B. and J.-E. Lindgren. "Chemical constituents and 
pharmacology of South American snuffs" in "Ethnopharmacolo- 
gic search for psychoactive drugs" (l967) 339-373. 



14. Knobloch, F. Die Aharabu-Indianer in Nordwest-Brasilien 
Collect. Inst. Anthropos 1 (l967). 

[ t>89 ] 



9 5 



15. Koch-Griinberg, T. "Zwei Jahre unterden Indianern" 1 (1909) 



298. 



16. Poisson, J. Ann. Pharm. Franc. 23 (1965) 241-244. 



17. Schultes, U.K. A new narcotic snuff from the northwest Ama- 
zon 1 ' Bot. Mus. Leatf. Harvard Univ. 16 (1954) 241-260. — "Un 
nouveau tabac a priserde l'Amazone du nord-ouest" Journ. Agric. 
Trop. Bot. Appl. 1 (1954) 298-311. 

18. . Tapping our heritage of ethnobotanical lore" Kcon. Bot. 

14 (i960) 257-262. 



19. . The role of the ethnobotanist in the search for new 

medicinal plants" Lloydia 25 (1962) 257-266. 



4 4 



20. . Lacticiferous plants of the Karaparana-Igaraparana re- 
gion of Colombia" Acta Bot. Neerlandica 15 (l966) 178-189. 

21. . The place of ethnobotany in the ethnopharmacologic 

search for psychotomimetic drugs" in Ethnopharmacologic 
search for psychoactive drugs'" (1967) 33-57. 

22. The botanical origins of South American snuffs" in Eth- 
nopharmacologic search for psychoactive drugs" (1967)291-306. 



23. and B. Holmstedt. De plantis toxicariis e Mundo Novo 

tropicale commentationes II. The vegetal ingredients of the 
myristicaceous snuffs of the northwest Amazon" Hhodora 70 
(1968) 113-160. 

24. Seitz, G.L. "Epena, the intoxicating snuff powder of the Waika 
Indians and the Tucano medicine man, Agostino" in Ethno- 
pharmacologic search for psychoactive drugs" (1967) 3 15-338. 

25. Singleton-Gates, P. and M. Girodias "The black diaries of Roger 

Casement" (1959) 203-315. 



4 4^,, .-»,. . ... ... 44 



26. Steward, J.H. The Witotoan tribes" in Handbook of South 
American Indians" 3 (l948) 749-762 [Bur. Am. Ethnol. Bull. 

113]. 

27. Wass£n, S.H. and B. Holmstedt. "The use of parica, an ethno- 
logical and pharmacological review" Ethnos 28 (1963) 5-45. 

28. Whiffen, T.W. "The northwest Amazons" (l915). 



29. Wilbert, J. Indios de la region Orinoco-Ventuari" Fund. La 
Salle Cienc. Nat. (Caracas) Monografia No. 8 (1963). 



[ 240 ] 






' 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, November 21, 1969 Vol. 22, No. 7 



A NEW AMAZONIAN ARROW POISON 

OCOTEA VENENOSA 

BY 
A.J. KOSTERMANS, 1 HoMER V. PlNKLEY, 2 

and William E. Stern 3 



A recently discovered ingredient of arrow poisons used 
by the Kofan Indians of the westernmost Amazon in 
Colombia and Ecuador is produced by an undescribed 
species of Ocotea of the Eauraceae. 



Ocotea venenosa Kosterm. ct Pinkley sp. nov. 

Arbor ramulis cum innovationibus dense minutissime 
ferrugineo-pilosis ; foliis spiraliter alternantibus vel sub- 
oppositis, chartaceis, ellipticis, obscure acuminatis, basi in 
petiolum brevem contractis supra laevibus, nervo medi- 
ano prominulo, costis filiformibus vix prominulis, subtus 
dense prominule reticulars, nervo mediano prominenti, 
dense pulverulente piloso, costis utrinque ca. ( .) subpaten- 
tibus prominulis; inflorescentiis paniculatis, axillaribus, 
parvis, dense minutissimeque ferrugineo-pilosis ; floribus 
tantum in alabastrum cognitis; tepalisovatis; staminibus 
fertilibus 9, crassis, exterioribus loculis 4 magnis, in- 
trorsis, filamentis crassis, interioribus loculis 4 extrorsis; 
glandulis non vidi ; ovario subpiloso, ellipsoideo, in sty- 



1 Herbarium Bogoriense, Bogor, Indonesia. 

Botanical Museum of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
6 Department of Botany, University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 

[ 241 ] 






? ' 




1 u mi brevcm prodeuntibus; fructu depresso-globoso, 

magno in cupulo magno incluso. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Putumayo, Rio Guamues, Santa Rosa. 
Primary forest. Altitude about 1060 feet. Lonjr. 77 05' W, Lat. 

00°19' N. November 26, 1966. H.V. Pinkley 555 TYPE! (Type in 
Herb. Gray. Duplicate type in Econ. Herb. Oakes Ames; Utrecht; 
Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm). — Ecuador: Provincia del 
Napo, Rio A^uarico, Durero. Fruit used to make arrow poison. 
Wood, yellow, very hard and bitter to taste. Sterile". October L 26, 
1966. H.V. Pinkley 538. 

Tree 32 m., bole 20 m., diam. 70 cm. : branchlets and 

terminal bud densely and minutely rusty-pilose. Leaves 
spirally arranged, occasionally subopposite, chartaceous, 
coriaceous, glabrous except above the midrib underneath, 
elliptical or narrowly elliptical, 6-9X16-20 cm. obscure- 
acuminate, base contracted into petiole 8-12 mm. 
long, flattened above; upper surface smooth, glossy, 
midrib conspicuous, prominent, lateral nerves filiform, 
hardly prominent; lower surface glossy, densely, mi- 
nutely, and rather obscurely reticulate. Midrib promi- 
nent, densely pulverulent-pilose, lateral nerves ca. 9 
pairs, rather patent, slightly arcuate, prominent. Pani- 
cles (immature) axillary, up to 2 cm. long, densely, 
minutely rusty-pilose. Flower buds ca. 1.5 mm. in diam. ; 
tepals ovate, fleshy, acutish, equal, or the inner ones nar- 
rower. Fertile stamens 1), thick, 4-celled; outer ones 
with large introrse and introrse-lateral cells, the anther 
not differentiated from the thick filament; the inner row 
with similar but narrower stamens with extrorse cells; 
the connectives blunt, protruded beyond the cells. 
Glands not seen. Ovary and style as long as the stamens, 
the ovary ellipsoid, merging into a slightly shorter style 
with rather inconspicuous stigma. Fruit depressed- 
globose, 5.5 cm. diam., 4.5 cm. high, smooth, with a 
small notch at the apex; cup 1 mm. thick, obscurely, 
broadly ribbed, covering the entire fruit except the up- 

[ 242 ] 



per part, leaving an orifice of 2.5 cm. diam. ; the cup 
closely adpressed to the fruit. In a smaller fruit (4.5 cm. 
diam.) the orifice of the cup is 3.5 cm. in diam. Stalk 
thick, woody, very short, 6 mm. diam. ; cotyledons 
plane-convex, thick; plumule, and radicle basal. 

Most of the flower buds available for dissection were 
abnormal as a result of fungal attack. The fruit cup is 
unusual in Ocotea, because it is almost adnate to the 
fruit. Another peculiarity is that the fruit docs not pro- 
trude from the cup. This is rare in Ocotea, but it does 
occur in other genera of the Lauraceae. 

The Kofan Indians, a tropical rain forest tribe of east- 
ern Ecuador and Colombia, employ the fruit of this plant, 
g'ing'ive Wo in Kofan, as an ingredient in one of their 
arrow poisons. Hence, the specific epithet, which means 
"very poisonous** in Latin, was chosen for this large tree. 
Two trees had to be felled before fertile material was 
found. After felling the first tree, which was sterile, I 
(Pinkley) took bark of the tree to my hut, thinking that 
it was the part of the tree used in preparing the arrow 
poison. When I arrived with the bark, the Indians laughed 
and revealed that they use only the fruit. 

Chemical analysis and pharmacologic research of this 
new species is being carried out by Dr. Ara Der Mar- 
derosian of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and 
Science. He reports, through personal communication, 
that he has isolated two of several alkaloids present, 
rodiasine and demethylrodiasine related to the curare 
alkaloid of medicine, d-tubocurarine. Rodiasine was first 
isolated in crystalline form from Ocotea Rodiei (Hob. 
Schomb.) Me/ (Ncctandra Rodiei Hob. Schomb.), (4, 7). 
The alkaloid study of Ocotea Rodiei began much earlier, 
however, when Maclagan in 1843 separated the alkaloids 
of this plant into two amorphous fractions, calling the 
portion soluble in ether bebeerine, and the portion in- 

[ 243 ] 



soluble in ether sepeerine. Since Mat-lagan's classic study, 
the name bebeerine, however, has been variously defined 
resulting in much confusion (7). Since he isolated amor- 
phous fractions rather than crystalline compounds, most 
are in favor of abandoning his nomenclature and using 
coined names referring only to actual isolated compounds. 
Hence, though Maclagan's bebeerine may be, in fact, the 
same or related to rodiasine, the term rodiasine is now 
preferred. Maclagan was encouraged to study the chem- 
istry of Ocotea Rodiei not because of any known curariz- 
ing effect but because the wood was known to be highly 
resistant to insects, marine borers and fungal decay (5, 8). 
Today we know that curine, the / form of "bebeerine,'* 
in high concentration ". . . causes paralysis of the stri- 
ated muscles and paralysis of the nerve end plates*" ((>). 



Though the chemical constituents of Ocotea venenosa and 
Ocotea Rodiei appear to be similar, the initial chemical 
investigations were induced for two different reasons. 



Several plants of the Lauraceae with an alkaloid related 
to "bebeerine" were reported in 1890 by (ireshoff, a 
pioneer in phytochemistry. Greshoff found in several 
genera an alkaloid which he called "lauro-tetanine."" He 

stated that (transl.), "according to the important charac- 
teristic, . . . causing tetanus in several species of animals, 
I propose to give this body which can be crystallized and 
characterized by good reactions the name lauro-tetanine" 
(3), He furthermore recognized the similarity of lauro- 
tetanine and bebeerine and suggested that (transl.) "a 
detailed quantitative research of bebeerine seems one of 
the most urgent desiderata of the alkaloid studies*' (3). 
Other alkaloids with curarizing effects have been iso- 
lated from the lauraceous tree Cryptocarya Bowiei 
(Hooker) Druce of Australia (2). The poisonous nature 
of this plant was discovered, quite by accident, by T.JL. 
Bancroft in 1880. He related his experience: (1) 

[ 244 ] 



Plate LXI\ 



OCOTEA venenosa 



Kosterm. et Pinkley 




i 



Ocotea venenosa. Habit sketch of branchlet, ;i . 1, inflorescence branchlet, 



w 2. "2a, outer stamen, \5. c 2b, inner stamen, > 15. 3, ovary and style, > 20. 

!•, diagrammatic cross section of fruit, X ';. 5, diagrammatic longitudinal section 

of fruit, X ;'>. (>, obli(|ue angle of dissected fruit showing large cotyledon and 



developed root, 



'. 7, fruit, ' 






On May 12th, 1886, in search of poisonous plants I found the 
bark of this tree to have a very persistently bitter taste. Physi- 
ological experiments were immediately made, which led to the 
discovery of its toxic action. Other species of the same genus are 
likewise poisonous. It is interesting botanically to note such a 
poisonous genus in this order. 

The alkaloid or its salts have an intensely bitter taste ; it is 
odourless and extremely poisonous, slightly soluble in water, 
very soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Warm blooded 
animals poisoned with Cryptocarya exhibit respiratory difficulty, 
soon ending in asphyxial convulsions and death. On frogs it 
causes paralysis of the reHex function ot the spinal cord and the 
peripheral ends of motor nerves as effectually as curara. 



The fact that Bancroft was led to make further studies 
because of the very persistent bitter taste has an interest- 
ing parallel among the Kofan Indians. Most, if not all, 
of the plants which they use in preparing arrow poisons 
are bitter. Equally true, one of the first diagnostic charac- 
ters used by the Kofans in identifying a plant is its taste. 
Alter first tasting the bark of a tree, for example, they 
will look up into the forest canopy and try to find leaves 
associated with the tree. It is quite possible that bitter- 
ness, inza?tsi in Kofan, led to the original discovery of 
the plants used for their arrow poisons. Moreover, in 
many cultures bitterness has become associated with 
death. An association which may have resulted from 
primitive man's observation that many bitter plants can 

cause death. 



Xylkm Anatomy of Ocotea venenosa 

Pores are decidedly rounded and occur mostly in the 
solitary (76$ ), radial multiple (20$ ), and clustered (4$ ) 
distributions. Radial multiples usually comprise only 2 
pores, ;{- and 4-pored multiples being rather uncommon. 

Only 3-pored clusters were noted. Tangential pore 
diameter ranged from 87/*-155/u with an average of] 17/^, 
based on measurements of 50 pores. Vessel elements all 

[ 246 1 




► 



r 

X 




•< 



1, radial section of xylem showing fenestriform pitting between vessel elements and xylem parenchyma, X290. 
2, coronated vessel element from macerated material illustrating fenestriform pits at ends, X 140. Note: Perfora- 
tions in this vessel element are out-of-focus. 



mole perforat 



ments 



with three perforations were noted. Ligules may be 
present and are usually short or they may be absent from 

the ends of vessel elements. Intervascular pitting is al- 
ternate ; inner apertures of pits are horizontally elongate 
and are enclosed by borders which may be elongate, 



ded 



mav be 



crossed or coincident. Vessel elements range in length 
from '235iA-935fJi and average 5G4/a in length, based on 
!)0 measurements. 

The relationship between vessel elements and axial 
and rav Darenchvma cells presents a curious if not unique 



d 



d with adj 



compound pitting with very large simple pits in paren- 
chyma cells subtending two or more bordered pits in 
vessel elements. The large simple pits in the parenchyma 
cells are often traversed by branched or simple filiform 
processes of cell wall material. In addition to the uni- 
laterally compound pitting, half-bordered pits occur. 
Supplementing these more or Jess common kinds of pit- 
ting is the pitting in the coronated vessel elem 
These vessel elements are 



norm 



all 



d lower ends b 



plete or partial ring of large, fenestriform, obscurely 
bordered pits which give the impression of a crown or 
corona (Plate LXIII, fig. 2). These are associated with 
simple pits of similar size and form in adjacent ray and 
axial parenchyma cells (Plate LXIII, fig. 1). Pits of the 



b 



At times 



; well. The uniqueness of this pitting resides in its j 

on at upper and lower ends of vessel elements, its v€ 
ement encircling tendency, and the large size of 

its. All combine to impart a crown-like appearanc 



ds of vessel eleme 



[ 249 ] 



For all intents and purposes, the imperforate tracheary 
elements are libriform wood fibers. Inner apertures of 
pit-pairs are somewhat elongated and outer apertures are 
nearly circular. A minute, insignificant border may be 
observed under high magnification in some pits of some 
fibers. Walls are very thick ranging up to 8/jl. Lumina 
are equal to or less than the diameter of the walls and 
are often completely occluded by the growth of the 
secondary cell walls. Fiber length ranges from 750^- 
14o7^ and averages 1104/x, based on 50 measurements. 

Vascular rays range from 1-4 cells wide, 1 -seriate and 
4-seriate rays being rare. Ray height ranges from one 
cell to over 25 cells, most rays being low T er than 15 cells 
high. Rays are heterocellular with the terminal ray cells 
being square, squarish, or upright and with the body of 
the ray comprising only procumbent cells. Terminal ray 
extensions are ordinarilv one or two cells high with uni- 
seriate extensions rarely reaching five or six cells high. 
These cells are slightly swollen as viewed in tangential 
section. 

Axial parenchyma is always paratracheal and may con- 
sist of a vasicentric sheath one to several cells wide around 
vessels and vessel groups; it may be aliform with short, 
broad wings; or sometimes it is even aliform-confluent. 

No secretory cells were observed in the secondary 

xylem. 

Because of the unusual nature of some of the morpho- 
logical features of Ocotea venenosa, namely, the fruit, the 
third author felt that an investigation of the secondary 
xylem might be instructive. Other than the exceptional 
coronated vessel elements described above and the some- 
what unusual absence of secretory cells, at least in the 
specimen examined, the xylem of (). venenosa falls well 
within the range of the xylem anatomical characteristics 
of Lauraceae described by Stern in 11)54 (9). In that 

[ 250 ] 



Lauraceae were noted as lack 
3ndarv xvlem. namelv : Dehac 



triandra, Lindera Benzoin, Nectandra coriacea, \. glo- 

bosa, Neolitsea Levinei, and Ravensara crassifolia. Secre- 
tory cells were described as scarce in Ocotea palmarut, 
Hypodaphnis Zenkeri, and Laurus nobilis. The absence 
of secretory cells in the secondary xylem of (). venenosa 
cannot alone be used to rule out or render questionable 
the demonstrated taxonomic affinities of this species. 

The peculiar fenestriform pitting in vessel elements 
represents a unique specialization occurring only in this 
particular species, at least as far as is presently known. 
Whether or not the combination of the unusual fruit 
(for Ocotea, anyway) and the special coronated vessel 
elements are significant enough characteristics upon 



which to base a new genus of Lauraceae, will depend 
upon the judgment of taxonomists. 



[ 251 ] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



1. Bancroft, T.L. 1887. On the Physiological Action of Cryptocarva 
australis. The Proceeding of the Royal Society of (Queensland. 
Vol. IV, pp. 12-13. 



2. Ewing, Jean, et al. 1953. The Alakloids of Cryptocarva Bowiei 
(Hook.) Druee. Australian Journal of Chemistry. Vol. 6, pp. 78— 

85. 



3. Greshoff, M. 1890. Rerste Verslag" van het Onderzoek Naar l)e 
Plantedstoffen van Nederlandsch-Indie. Mededeelin^en uit 
"SLands Plantentum VII. 



4. Grundon, M.F., and J.E. B. McGarvey. 1960. Alkaloids from 
Greenheart. Part I. The Isolation of the Alkaloids, and the Struc- 
ture of Sepeerine. Jour. Chem. Soc, pp. ^739-^745. 



5. Macla^an, Douplas. 1843. Ueberden Bebeerubaum des brittischen 



Guiana. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. Vol. XLVIII, pp. 



10t>-12 1. 



6. Manske, R.H.F. and H.L. Holmes (eds.). 1954. The Alkaloids, 
Chemistry and Physiology, Vol. IV. Academic Press, Inc. N.Y., 
p. "231. 



7. McKennis, Herbert Jr. , et al. 19j6. Isolation of a Tetramethoxy- 
lated Alkaloid from Demerara Greenheart. Jour. Amer. (hem. 
Soc. Vol. 78, pp. ^45-248. 



S. Record, S.J. and R.W. Hess. 1943. Timbers of the New World 
Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, pp. 211-218. 



9. Stern, W.L. 1934. Comparative Anatomy of Xylem and Phylo- 
geny of Lauraceae. Tropical Woods. Vol. 100, pp. 1-73. 



[ 2.52 ] 



BLANCHE AMES AMES 

(1878-1969) 



An Appreciation 



Through most of Ium* long life, Blanche Ames Ames 
cherished a unique and meaningful relationship with the 
Botanical Museum, a closeness severed only by death at 
her home in Borderland, North Huston, Massachusetts, 
on March 1, 1909. 

Wife and lifelong helpmeet of Professor Oakes Ames, 
second director of the Botanical Museum, Blanche Ames 
never held an official appointment as a member of the 
Museum staff. Nevertheless, her contributions to the life 
of the institution were so profound that they will always 
be appreciated in the educational and research activities 
of the Museum and, through it, will continue to be 

widely recognized in the world of botany. 

Mrs. Ames was an early champion of women's suf- 
frage, a leader in civic and charitable affairs and an author; 
but perhaps she 4 will be most widely acknowledged as an 
artist. Her botanical etchings and pen and ink drawings 
are displayed in the Botanical Museum and in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, and her oil paintings hang at 
Harvard, Dartmouth, Columbia, Phillips Exeter Acad- 
emy, the Mississippi State Hall of 
several private collections. 

Her interest in botanical artistry 1 



g 



and in 



\mes Botanical Laboratory at North Easton, she started 



253 



to illustrate 4 her husband's publications on new species of 

Philippine orchids. When Professor Ames transferred his 

activities to the Museum and installed there the Ames 
Orchid Herbarium and Library, she intensified her ef- 
forts, producing over a period of some fifty years literally 
hundreds of outstanding line drawings of orchids. W hen 
the University added the supervision of the 1 Arnold 
Arboretum to Professor Ames' duties, Mrs. Ames un- 
dertook the preparation of drawings of a number of 

horticulturally important shrubs. 

In the 1920\s, Professor Ames turned his attention 

to economic botany, and his w T ife began to illustrate 
plants of use to man. Especially noteworthy was Mrs. 
Ames' preparation, under her husband's guidance, of 
the now famous "Ames Charts of Economic Plants". 
The teaching of I larvard I University's course 4 in Econom- 
ic Botany, offered for many years by Professor .Ames, 
was organized around these 4 four colorful wall charts de- 
picting important economic species arranged on a "phylo- 
genetic tree 4 *", in accordance with the Engler-Prantl 
System. Still in use 4 to-day, the charts have helped in- 
terpret plant classification to hundreds of students for 
more than fifty years and have stamped a unique charac- 
ter on Harvard's teaching in this interdisciplinary field. 



When Professor .Vines established a press 



in 



the 



Museum in the early HKiO's and initiated publication of 

the Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard I T uivcrsity 

and occasional books, Mrs. Ames* artistry vitalized the 4 
research papers that were printed. 



\m 



onir 



tl 



ic 



book 



produced on this press and illustrated by Mrs. Ames are 
"Orchids in Retrospect", "Drawings of Florida Or- 
chids" and "Economic Annuals and II uman Cultures". 
Her line drawings have likewise been widely reproduced 
in many monographs, floras and manuals issued by other 
botanical institutions and by commercial publishers. 

[ 254 J 



Mrs. Ames was an accomplished portrait artist. Ex- 
amples of this aspect of her artistic contribution, hanging 
in the Botanical Museum, consist of life-sized oil paint- 
ings of the Museum's three directors : Professor George 
Lincoln Goodale, Professor Oakes Ames, and Professor 
Paul C. Mangelsdorf. It is unique to have the 4 portraits 
of three men whose service spanned a period of 79 years — - 
from 18S8 to lt)(>7 — painted by a single artist. 



Truly a great lady and an outstanding artist, Blanche 
Ames' influence will long he felt in botany, for she spent 
a great part of her life interpreting the beauty of plants 
for others. This characteristic of her life was appropriately 
stressed at memorial services for Mrs. Ames by the Rev. 
Mr. Kdinund Palmer Clarke of the Unitarian Church of 



North Easton. 



. . 



I f Mrs. Ames had been 



a man, we 



would have said of her that she was 'a man of parts*. . . 
a person of much ability and many talents, . . Those of 

1 ft * 

you who knew her best will see the aptness of my using 
the phrase to describe her. Perhaps even better, now that 
she has gone from us, is Shelley's. . . : 'She is a portion 
of the loveliness which once she made more lovely. . . 
For this was her greatest talent — to know nature— 



—to 
reproduce it in her drawings for those less perceptive than 

she, and to give expression to those things which made 
us better because she 4 had lived amongst us." 

The staff of the Museum can think of no better way 

* 

of expressing its appreciation of Blanche Ames* devotion 
to botanical art than to present, on the very press that 
has known so well her skillful pen, a selection of her 
artistic and scientific contributions. 



KlCIIAKl) KVAXS SCHULTES 



[ •_>.-.; 



Plate LXV1 




Hi. a Nci in A Mi.s Ames 



[ 256 ] 



Plate LXVII 




Davidia involucrata liaill. 

(Dove Tree) 

[ 257 



Plate LXVIII 







Polyradicion Lindenii {IJndL) Garay 



Plate LXIX 




Calopogon pulchellus (Sa/isb.) li.Hr. 



Plate IAX 




Habenaria nivea (\//tt.) Spreng. 



Plate LXXI 




Cypripedium Calceolus L. 

var. pubescens (Jfl//d.) Correll 



[ 261 



Plate LXXII 




Epidendrum tampense Luull. 



Plate LXXIII 




Blanche Ames Ames and Oakes Ames 



•2 < ; 3 



Plate LXX1V 




STELIS 



oonauctsAx'ca Q^scmes 



[ '264 ] 



FOUR NEW SPECIES OF SAURAUIA FROM 

SOUTH AMERICA 

15 Y 
D.IAJA 1). SOEJARTO 1 



Saurauia is a widespread genus of the Actinidiaceae 
(Theales). The members of Saurauia are represented in 
both tropical and subtropical Asia and America. Ac- 
cording to the latest estimate made by Melchior," ap- 
proximately 280 species of the genus have been described. 
The American distribution of Saurauia extends from 
central Mexico in the north to Bolivia in the south, 
through Andean South America. Twenty-two species 
are found in Mexico and Central America, 5 and my 
present study 4 indicates that 49 species are represented 
in South America. Members of the genus consist mostly 

of localized populations of mountainous and subalpine 
trees and shrubs, but species adapted to lower elevations 
and species with broad geographic distribution are also 
known. 



1 Latin American Teaching Fellow, Associate Professor, Departa- 
mento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias y Humanidades, Universidad 
de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia. 



2 



In Fngler, Syllabus der PHanzenfamilien, ed. 12, 2: 160. 1964. 

3 Hunter, G.E. I960. Revision of Mexican and Central American 
Saurauia (Dilleniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 53 (l): 4-7-89. 

4 Studies of South American Saurauia (Actinidiaceae), 458 pp., Gl 
pis., Ph.D. dissertation (1968), Department of Biology, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 



[ 26; 



i 



Among the collections of South American Saurauia 
kindly loaned to me for study by the United States 
National Museum, the (iray Herbarium of Harvard 
University and the New York Botanical Garden, there 
were specimens which I could not identify with any of 
the species that L accepted from South America nor with 
any of those of Mexico and Central .America accepted 
by I lunter. After careful studies of these specimens, I am 
inclined to believe that these species are new to science. 



1. Saurauia multinervis Soqjarto sp. nov. 

Species foliis magnis elongatis glabris, nervis laterali- 
bus numerosis, inflorescentiis omnino glabris multifloris, 
sepalis glabris notabilibus. — Holotypus : I (hobo 8$ Fer- 
nandez 54 (US). 

Shrubs to 2 m., many-branched, glabrous. Leaf blades 
elongate-obovate, cuspidate at apex, broadly cuneate to 
obtuse at base, dentate-serrate with minute and sharp- 
pointed serrations along margins, 30-42 cm. long, 12-14 
cm. wide, coriaceous, dirty dark olive-brown above in 
dry state, brownish olive beneath, laevigate and smooth 
above, secondary veins 35-37 pairs, tertiary veins ele- 
vated, more prominent than lesser venation, both surfaces 
glabrous; petioles 1-2 cm. long, 3-5 mm. in diameter, 
glabrous. Inflorescences straight, ca. 150-flowered, 23 
cm. long, 15 cm. wide, glabrous, primary peduncle 1.5 
cm. long, bracts linear, to 5 mm. long. Flowers un- 
known. Fruits laxly distributed, berries 5-locular, glo- 
bose, to 6 mm. in diameter, 5-sulcate, glabrous; pedicels 
4-8 mm. long, bracteoles linear, to 3 mm. long: persis- 
tent sepals 5, oblong-elliptic to ovate, obtuse, 5-6.5 mm. 
long, 3-4.5 mm. wide, all glabrous within and without. 



m 



5, 4.5-5 mm. long, stigm 



I 266 ] 



Distribution: Colombia (Departamento Cauca), alt. 
2000 m., fruiting in August. 

Vernacular names: Lulumoco (Cauca — Idrobo & Fer- 
nandez). 

Specimens examined. Colombia, Cauca: Cordillera 
Occidental, vertiente oriental, El Tambo, Corregimiento 
de Chapa, Ciruelas, Idrobo <£ Fernandez 5J+ (US). 



2. Saurauia Schultesiana 5 Soejarto sp. nov. 

Species ceteribus differt foliis et inflorescentiis ramuli 
apice confertis, laminis supra distante et sparse setulosis 
subtus sparse setosis, inflorescentiis paucifloris (minus 
quam vigintifloribus), bracteis glabris, pedicellis longis 
(usque ad 10 mm.), rloribus magnis (20-25 mm. latis), 
sepalis parte mediana parse pubescentibus sed lateralibus 
fflabris. intus omnino erlabris, staminibus viginti-quinque 



ad trigintiquinque. — Holotypus: Pennell 10501 (NY). 
Trees : copiously to sparingly pubescent. Branchlets te 
rete, abundantly pulverulent, rusty strigose to appressed 
setose (young leaves and shoot deep brown). Leave 
crowded near tip of branchlets; blades elliptic to oblong 
obovate, acuminate at apex with acumen to 15 mm. long 

euneate at base, serrulate aloni/ margins. 14-1 8 cm. Ions 



7-8 cm. wide, subcoriaceous, in dry state dark dirty 
brown above, greyish olive-brown beneath, scarcely 
scabrous above and beneath, secondary veins 15-18 pairs, 
tertiary veins elevated, more prominent than lesser vena- 
tion, sparingly setulose along and between minor veins 
and abundantly anDressed-setose to strigose along major 



veins above, sparingly setose to setulose (mixed with 



'" I have named this species in honor of Dr. Richard Evans Schultes, 
Executive Director of the Botanical Museum of Harvard University 
and my former academic adviser, who has inspired in me a deep in- 
terest in the tropical American flora. 

[267 ] 



scattered radiate trichomes) along and between minor 
veins and abundantly pulverulent strigose along major 
veins beneath; petioles ca. 2 cm. long, 2-3 mm. in 
diameter, half-terete, abundantly rusty strigose. Inflo- 
rescences distributed near tip of branchlets, straight, 
6-20-flowered, 13-30 cm. long, 2-7 cm. wide, abundantly 
pulverulent scurvy-strigose, primary peduncle 8-15 cm. 
long, bracts broadly triangular to suborbicular, 10-15 
mm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, glabrous. Flowers 20-25 mm. 
broad, buds to 9 mm. in diameter, pedicels 5-10 mm. 
long, bracteoles broadly triangular, to 10 mm. long; 
sepals 5, outer 2 trullate to oblong-ovate, subacute, 10- 
12 mm. long, 6-7 mm. wide, imbricate one suborbicu- 
lar, rounded, 10-12 mm. long, 8-9 mm. wide, inner 2 
suborbicular to orbicular-oblong, rounded, 10-14 mm. 
wide, all glabrous to medially sparingly strigillose with- 
out, completely glabrous within, marginally entire to 
apically ciliolate; petals 5, white, subquadrangular to 
spatulate, rounded, 15-19 mm. long, 9-11 mm. wide; 



stamens 25-35, filament 4-5 mm. long, anther 2.5-3 
mm. long; ovary 5-7-locular, globose, 5-7-sulcate, gla- 
brous, styles 5-7, to 7.5 mm. long, stigmas capitate. 



B 



mature) 5-7 



bose, to mm. in diameter (im 



Distribution: Colombia (Departmento Caldas), mossy 
forest, alt. 3200-3400 m., flowering in September. 

Specimens examined. Colombia, Caldas: Cordillera 
Occidental, Cerro Tatama, Pennell 10501 (NY). 



3. Saurauia Mexiae f> Killip ex Soejarto sp. ?iov. 

S. pseudostrigillosae Busc. affinis sed floribus grand iori- 



•; i - • 



Killip annotated the collection (Mexia 8^88) as Saurauia Mexiae 
Killip spec, nov., but so far as I am aware, the name and description 
of this concept have never been published. 

[ 208 ] 



bus, pedicellis longioribus, foliis subtus abundanter et 
molliter stellatis differt. — Holotypus: Meccia 8488 (US). 
Trees to 10 m. ; copiously pubescent. Branchlets 
somewhat terete, distinctly scarred, abundantly to spar- 
ingly pulverulent strigose. Leaves crowded near tip of 
branchlets; blades somewhat broadly ovate, abruptly 
acuminate with acumen to 15 mm. long, obtuse to 
rounded at base, rarely oblique, serrulate along margins, 
17-28 cm. long, 9-15 cm. wide, chartaceous, in dry state 
dark dirty olive-brown above, grey-green beneath, some- 
what scabrous above but somewhat soft beneath, second- 
ary veins 16-22 pairs, tertiary veins elevated, more 
prominent than lesser venation, strigillose (trichomes 
with barbules) along veins with pustulate epidermis 
above, abundantly and softly stellate (trichomes very 
slender) along and between veins but mixed with un- 
branched multicellular trichomes along major veins with 
somewhat postulate epidermis beneath; petioles 1.5-3 
cm. long, 2-3 mm. in diameter, half-terete, densely pul- 



verulent strigillose to strigose. Inflorescences crowded 
near tip of branchlets, straight, lax and somewhat spread- 
ing, ca. 100-flowered, 18-26 cm. long, 10-17 cm. wide, 
abundantly to densely pulverulent strigose to strigillose 
(trichomes with barbules), primary peduncle 8-11 cm. 
long, bracts triangular to linear, to G mm. long. Flow- 



ers 20-25 mm. broad, buds to 8 mm. in diameter, ped 
eels 5-12 mm. Ions, braeteoles minute, subulate, to 



mm 



long; sepals 5, orbicular, rarely oblong, rounded, 
rarely obtuse, 4-6 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, outer 2 
abundantly pulverulent-stellate mixed with unbranched 
multicellular trichomes (with barbules), imbricate one 



abund 



on outer half, dens 
. inner 2 medially ab 



T 



d 



bundantly to densely appressed 

[ 269 



on upper half, glabrous on lower half within, marginally 
and apical ly ciliolate to ciliate; petals 5. white, oblong 
to oblong-obovate, 9-11 mm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, sta- 
mens 100 -200, filament 3.5-4.5 mm. long, anther 1.5 
mm. long: ovary 5-locular, globose, 5-sulcate, glabrous, 
styles .5. 1 mm. long, stigmas simple. Herriesnot known. 

Distribution: Ecuador (Provincia Esmeraldas), river 
bank, alt. 95 m., flowering in December. 

Specimens examined. Ecuador, Esmeraldas; Parroquia 

de Concepcion, below Playa Rica, Meccia 8488 (F, NY, 
S. U, UC, US-holotype).* 



4 * Saurauia chaparensis Soejarto sp. nov. 

Species foliissubtus abundanter stellatis,inflorescentiis 
laxis, floribus circiter 1 5 mm. latis, staminibus plus quam 
1 00. — Holotypus : Steinbach 8920 (G 1 1 ). 

Shrubs?: copiously pubescent. Hranchlets moderately 
stout, terete, prominently scarred, abundantly strigose 
often with barbulate trichomes to glabrescent. Leaves 
crowded near tip of branchlets : blades obovate to oblong- 
obovate, blunt to very shortly acuminate at apex, cuneate 
at base, rarely oblique, serrulate with very fine serrula- 
tions along margins, 10-18 cm. long, .'3-0 cm. wide, 
chartaceous, in drv state sootv above, olive-brown be- 



scabrous above and b 



veins 18 



d bet 



tertiary veins elevated, more promi- 
ation, sparingly clustered and strigil- 
veen veins with pustulate epidermis 
above, abundantly stellate to rarely tufted along and be- 
tween veins (often mixed with barbulate trichomes along 
major veins) beneath, villous-barbate at axils of second- 
ary veins beneath; petioles 2-3 cm. long, 1.5-2 mm. in 
diameter, terete to half-terete, abundantly tuberculate 
to strigillose with often barbulate trichomes, scabrous. 



[ 270 ] 



Inflorescences crowded near tip of branchlets, straight, 
somewhat loose, 30-80-flowered, 12-20 cm. long, .5-12 
cm. wide, densely pulverulent-tuberculate, primary pe- 
duncle 5-10 cm. long, bracts linear, to 6 mm. long, very 
rarely foliaceous, to 25 mm. long. Flowers ca. 15 mm. 
broad, buds to G mm. long, very rarely foliaceous, to 25 
mm. long. Flowers ca. 15 mm. broad, buds to G mm. 
in diameter, pedicels 5-15(-20) mm. long, bracteoles 
triangular, to 2 mm. long; sepals 5, outer 2 oblong- 
obovate, acute, 3.5-4.5 mm. long, 3-3.5 mm. wide, 
densely strigillose (trichomes with barbules), imbricate 
one suborbicular, rounded, 4-5 mm. long, 3.5-4 mm. 
wide, densely strigillose on outer half (trichomes with 
barbules), completely glabrous on inner half, inner 2 
suborbicular to orbicular-oblong, 4-5 mm. long, 3.5-4.5 
mm. wide, medially densely strigillose (trichomes with 
barbules), laterally completely glabrous, all completely 
glabrous within, marginally subentire, apically irregular- 
ly ciliolate; petals 5, oblong to oblong-obovate, rounded 
to truncate and often incised, 7-0 mm. long, 5-7.5 mm. 
wide; stamens 100-150, filament 2-3 mm. long, anther 
1-2 mm. long; ovary 5-7-locular, globose, 5-7-sulcate, 
glabrous, styles 5-7, obsolete to 4 mm. long, stigmas 
simple to capitate. Berries 5-7-locular, globose, to 5 mm. 
in diameter (immature), 5-7-sulcate. 

Distribution: Bolivia (l)epartamento Cochabamba), 
forest, alt. 2200-2400 m., flowering in January and 
March. 

Specimens examined. Bolivia, Cochabamba: Chapare, 
Incachaca, Steinbach 8920 (F, GH-holotype, NY, S); 
ibid., Steinbach 9513 (F, G, GH, K, NY, S). 



[ 271 ] 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Cambridge, Massachusetts, December 26, 1969 Vol. 22, No. 8 



NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL HYBRID 

GENERIC NAMES OF ORCHIDS 

Supplement I: 1966-1969 

BY 

Leslie A. Garay and Herman R. Sweet 



Since the publication of the first compendium of "Nat- 
ural and Artificial Hybrid Generic Names of Orchids, 
1887-19G.5", in the Botanical Museum Leaflets, volume 
21 : 141-212, 19GG, we have uncovered several previously 
unrecorded names in addition to those which have been 
published for the first time during the intervening period. 
These names, together with corrections and supplemen- 
tary information, are included in this Supplement. Since 
hybrid generic names are not recorded in Index Kewen- 
sis, the first compendium and this supplement provide a 
similar tool for the interested orchidophiles. To increase 
its usefulness, each hybrid generic name is evaluated and 
treated in accordance with the rules set forth in both the 
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and the 
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated 
Plants. Both of these codes derive their authority from 
the International Union of Biological Sciences. 

In this Supplement, as in the first compendium, the 
rule of priority is strictly observed, an action most im- 
portant if stabilization in orchid nomenclature is to be 
achieved. Alone this line, we have noted the acceptance 



me 



by the Orchid R 



[ 273 . 



Authority, Royal Horticultural Society, Kngland, such 
as Grammatocymbidium, Phalaerianda, Phragmipa- 
phium, Recchara, Zygorhyncha and Zygostylis, while 
to others, the rule of priority has yet to be applied. For 
example, in 1948, the hybrid generic name Lyonara was 

published with the parentage, Trichoglottis X Vanda. 
Since this constituted only a bigeneric hybrid, the use 
of the suffix -ara made the name illegitimate. Subse- 
quently, this was corrected to Trichovanda. In 1959, 
Lyonara was published again with a trigeneric paren- 
tage, Cattleya X Laclia X Schomburgkia. This Lyonara 

is also illegitimate, since it represents a later homonym 
as well as a superfluous name. The correct name lor this 
trigeneric hybrid is Schombolaeliocattleya, originally 
published by The Koyal Horticultural Society in its 
Dictionary of Gardening, in 1951, thus antedating the 
later homonym. Nevertheless, we find that Lyonara of 
1959, rather than Schombolaeliocattleya of 1951, is 
maintained in the current listings. Other discrepancies: 
the acceptance of Rhynchovanda (1958) rather than 
Vandachostylis (1935), the acceptance of Brassophron- 
itis (1954) rather than Sophrovola (1895). The former 
hybrid name, involving Rhynchostylis and Vanda^ is of 
special concern because Vandachostylis was fully de- 
scribed, illustrated in color, and also supplemented by 
anatomical descriptions and illustrations of the first hy- 
brid, V- Bernardii. At the end of this same treatise, 
another hybrid generic name involving Doritis and 
Phalaenopsis, was mentioned, namely Doritaenopsis, 
but without any description or grex epithet. Notwith- 
standing the lack of description and a legitimate grex 
epithet, Doritaenopsis was and still is accepted by the 
Registration Authority, while Vandachostylis was and 
still is rejected in favor of a later illegitimate name. 
In this Supplement, as in the original compendium, 

[ 274 ] 



there has been a strict adherence to the requirements of 
the Codes, especially Articles 40, H. 3 and H. 4 of the 
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. The in- 
terpretation of these articles was clearly explained in the 
introduction to the first compendium, the correctness of 
which is confirmed by "An Annotated Glossary of Bo- 
tanical Nomenclature", prepared on the authorization 



of the Nomenclature Section of the X. International 
Botanical Congress, in 1964. In this glossary on page 
14, under the term "Formula"", we find the following 
statement: "Condensed formulae formed from parts of 
generic names and applied to intergeneric hybrids are 
treated as 'generic names' (Arts. H. 3, H. 4) and are 
subject to the rule of priority and the homonym rule.'" 

Ln a few cases, it was discovered that certain names 
had appeared in publications earlier than those which 
were cited in the original list. These corrections are in- 
cluded in this Supplement in Part I, and, as indicated, 
they replace the earlier entries. The citation of place of 
publication for the following names have been corrected : 
Grammatocymbidium, Gymnaplatanthera, Spatho- 
phaius, Symphodontioda, Symphodontoglossum, 
Symphyglossonia and Zygostylis. 

Hybrids reported for the first time for previously pub- 
lished hybrid generic names include, Grammatocym- 
bidium, Renaglottis and Renancentrum. 

Finally, attention is called to the arrangement of 
parent genera in Part II of this Supplement. The ge- 
neric names involved in the makeup of a given hybrid 
genus appear in alphabetical sequence only once under 
each name. 



[ 275 ] 



Part I 



List ol' hybrid generic names 



Aeridocentrum in Orch. Rev. 75: February, 1967 

Aerides ■ Ascocentrum 

1st hvbr. : A. Luke Nok 

Parentage : Aerides Jlabellatum Ascocentrum curvtfolium 

Ansidium in Orch. Rev. 74: May, 1966 

I use I Ha Cymbidium 

1st hvbr. : A. Bess Waldon 
Parentage: Ansellia qfricana Cymbidium Dunster Castle 

Arachnostylis in Orch. Rev. 7+: April, I960 
Irachn is X Rhy rich osty lis 



1st hybr. : A. Chorchalood 

Parentage: Arachnis Hookeriana X Rhynchostyhs gigantea 

Asconopsis in Orch. Rev. 76: February, 1968 

Ascocentrum K Phalaenopsis 

1st hybr. : A. Mini-Coral 

Parentage: Phalaenopsis Schilleriana x/ Ascocentrum miniatum 

Ascorachnis in Orch. Rev. 75: August, 1967 
Arachnis X Ascocentrum 

1st hybr. : A. George Neo 

Parentage: Arachnis lshbel X Ascocentrum miniatum 

Ascovandoritis in Orch. Rev. 77: September, 1969 

Ascocentrum Doritis Vanda 

1st hybr. : A. Sonnhild Kitts 

Parentage: Doritis pulcherrima X Ascocenda Red Gem 

Barlaceras in Riviera Scientif. 11: 65, 1924 

Observation: Add Syn. : Barliaceras in Ciferri and Giacomini, No- 

raencl, Fl. Ital. pt. 1: 167, 1950. 

Barliaceras in Ciferri and Giacomini, Noinencl. Fl. Ital. pt. 1 : 167, 

1950 
Observation : See Barlaceras. 

Bateostylis in Orch. Rev. 75: November, 1967 

Ratemannia tost y lis 

1st hybr. : R. Silver Star 

Parentage : Batemannia Colleyi X Otoslylis brachystalix 

[ 276 1 



Bifrinlaria in Lager and Hurrell Seedling Listing no. 866-S : p. 1, 

September, 1966. 
Bifrenaria X Maxillaria 
1st hvbr. : unnamed 
Parentage : Maxillaria Sanderiana X Bifrenaria Harrisoniae 

Bloomara in Orch. Rev. 74: June, 1966 

Broughtonia X Laeliopsis X Tetramicra 

1st hvbr. : B. Jim 

Parentage: Tetramicra canaliculata X Broughtopsis Kingston (as Lio- 

ponia Kingston) 

Burkillara in Orch. Rev. 75 : December, 1967 

Aerides X Arachnis X Vanda 

1st hybr. : B. Margaret Ede 

Parentage: Aeridachnis Bogor X Vanda Cooperi (in Orch. Rev. 76: 

June, 1968) 
Observation: For the hybrid Burkillara Henry see Wrefordara. 

Carterara in Orch. Rev. 77: January, 1969 

Aerides X Renanthera X Vandopsis 

1st hybr. : C. Evening Glow 

Parentage : Renanopsis Lena Rowold X Aerides Laxcrenceae 

Catamodes in Orch. Rev. 75: 205, 1967 

Catasetum X Mormodes 

1st hybr. : C. Brown Derby 

Parentage : Catasetum Warsceiciczii X Mormodes atropurpurea 

Catanoches in Orch. Rev, 75: 205, 1967 

Catasetum X Cycnoches 

1st hybr. : C Green Beret 

Parentage : Catasetum Warscewiczii X Cycnoches ventricosum 

Cattleyopsisgoa in Orch. Rev. 75: November, 1967 

Cattleyopsis X Domingoa 

1st hvbr. : C. Little Fellow 

Parentage: Domingoa hymenodes X Cattleyopsis Ortgiesiana 

Cattleyopsistonia in Orch. Rev. 74: July, 1966 

Broughtonia X Cattleyopsis 



1st hybr. : C. Leona 

Parentage: Cattleyopsis Ortgiesiana X Broughtonia sanguinea 

Cephalophrys in Orchid World 2: 114, 1912 
Cephalanthera X Ophrys 

[ 277 



1st. hybr. : C. Integra 

Parentage: Ophrys apifera X Cephalanthera rubra 

Christieara in Orch. Rev. 77: November, 1909 

Aerides X Ascocentrum X / and a 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Observation: For the hybrid Christieara Mem, Lillian Arnold see 
Reinikkaara. 

Cochlenia in Orch. Rev. 75: November, 19157 

Cochleanthes X Stenia 

1st hybr. : C. Bryn Mawr 

Parentage : Stenia pallida X Cochleanthes discolor 

Coeloplatanthera in Ciferri and Giacomini, Nomencl. Fl. Ital. pt. 1 : 
169, 1950 

Coeloglossum > Platanthera 

1st hybr. : C. Brueggeri 

Parentage : Coeloglossum viride X Platanthera chlorantha 

Cymbiphyllum in Orch. Rev. 75: March, 1967 
Observation: See Grammatocymbidium. 

Dactylanthera in Willis, Diet. Fl. Plants and Ferns ed. 7; 827, 1966 
Observation : See Rhizanthera. 

Dactyleucorchis in Ann. Univ. Eotvos, Budapest 8: 319, 1966 
Dactylorhiza • Leucorchis 

1st hybr. : D. Bruniana (as Orchis Bruniana) 
Parentage : Leucorchis a Ibid a X Dactylorhiza maculata 

Dactylella in Ann. Univ. Eotvos, Budapest 8: S18, 1966 
Observation : See Dactylitella. 

Dactylitella in Watsonia 6: 132, 1965 

Observation: Add Syn. : Dactylella in Ann. Univ. Eotv6s, Budapest 
8: 318, 1966 

Dactyloceras nom. hybr. gen. nov. 
Iceras X Dactylorhiza 
1st hybr. : I), helvetica comb. nov. (Basionym: Orchiaceras helvetica 

Cif. & Giac, Nomencl. FL Ital. pt. 1: 167, 1950) 
Parentage: Aceras anthropophora X Dactylorhiza lat[/blia 

Dactylodenia in Bot. Mus. Leatf. Harvard Univ. 21: 157, 1966 
Dactylorhiza X Gymnadenia 

1st hybr. : /). Heinzeliana comb. nov. (Basionym: Orchis Heinzeliana 
Reich, in Verb. K.K. zool. bot. Ges. L J6: 464, 1876) 

[ 278 ] 



Parentage : Dactylorhiza maculata X Gymnadenia conopea 

Syn. : Dactylogymnadenia in Ann. Univ. Eotvos, Budapest 8: 318, 
1966 

Dactylogymnadenia in Ann. Univ. Eotvos, Budapest 8: 318, 1966 
Observation : See Dactylodenia. 

Degarmoara in Orch. Rev. 76: February, 1968 

Brassia X Mi/tonia X Odontoglossum 

1st hybr. : D. Agnes 

Parentage : Odontonia Debutante X Brassia antherotes 

DeWolfara nora. hybr. gen. nov. 

Renantkera X Ascoglossum X Ascocentrum X Euanthe X Vanda 

1st hybr. : D. Cassino (as Shigeuraara Cassino) 

Parentage: Renanthoglossum Red Delight X Schlechterara Meda 

Arnold 

Dialaeliopsis in Orch. Rev. 74: November, 1966 

Diacrium X Laeliopsis 
1st hybr. : D. Tobago 
Parentage: Diacrium bicor nut um X Laeliopsis domingensis 

Dillonara in Orch. Rev. 74: December, 1966 

Epidendrum X Laelia X Schomburgkia 

1st. hybr. : jD. Bronze Kahili 

Parentage : Schombolaelia Maunalani X Epidendrum diurnum 

Doricentrum in Orch. Rev. 77: October, 1969 

Doritis X Ascocentrum 

1st. hybr. : D. Merrilee Wallbrunn 

Parentage : Doritis pulcherrima X Ascocentrum curvifolium 

Doriella in Orch. Rev. 74: May, 1966 

Doritis X Kingiella 

1st hybr. : D. Tiny 

Parentage : Doritis pulcherrima X Kingiella phitippinensis 

Doriellaopsis in Orch. Rev. 76: December, 1968 

Doritis X Kingiella X Phalaenopsis 

1st hvbr. : D. Burma 

Parentage: Doritaeniopsis Purple Gem X Kingiella taenia/is 

Encyclipedium Dillon in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 
Encyclia X Cypripedium 
1st hybr. : not yet reported 

[ 279 ] 



Ernestara in Orch. Rev. 76: December, 1968 

P/ia/aenopsis X lienanihera X V amiopsis 

1st hybr. : E. Helga lieuter 

Parentage : Renanopsis Cape Sable X Phalaenopsis Dos Pueblos 

Garayara in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 
Arachnis X Paraphalaenopsis X I amiopsis 

1st hybr. : G. Lee Kim Hong (as Laycockara Lee Kim Hong) 
Parentage: Pararachnis Lee Siew Chin X Vandopsis lissochiloides 

Gauntlettara in Orch. Iiev. 74: April, 1966 
liroughtonia X Cattleyopsis X Laeliopsis 
1st hybr. : G. Noel 

Parentage: Cattleyopsis Ortgiesiana X Broughtopsis Kingston (as 
Lioponia Kingston) 

Giddingsara in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 

Ascocentrum X Euanthe X Renanthera X Vanda X Vandopsis 

1st hybr. : G. Sapphire (as Onoara Sapphire) 

Parentage: Schlechterara Meda Arnold X Renanopsis Lena Rowold 

Gilmourara nom. hvbr. gen. now 

Aerides X Arachnis X Ascocentrum X Euanthe X Panda 

1st hybr. : G. Gracia (as Lewisara Gracia) 

Parentage : Aeridachnis Bogor X Schlechterara Ophelia 

Grammatocymbidium in Orch. Rev. 30: 338, 1922 

Cymbidium X Grammatophyllum 

1st hybr. : G. Emil Anderson (as Cymbiphyllum Emil Anderson) 

Parentage: Cymbidium pendulum X Grammatophyllum Measuresiamwi 

Observation : This replaces the earlier entry. 

Syn. : Cymbiphyllum in Orch. Rev. 75: March, 1967 

Greatwoodara nom. hybr. gen. now 
Ascocentrum X Euanthe X Renanthera X Panda 

1st hybr. : G. William Doi (as Kagawara William Doi) 
Parentage: Penanthera Kilauea X Schlechterara Meda Arnold 

Gymleucorchis in Lond. Cat. Brit. PL, ed. 11; 43, 1925 

Gymnadenia X Leucorchis 

1st hybr. : G. Schweir\fitrthii (as Gymnadenia Schxceinjurthii, 1865) 
Parentage: Gymnadenia conopea X Leucorchis albida 
III- : in Verb. ZooL-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien 15: t. 5, f. 15-16, 1865 
Observation: This replaces the earlier entry of Gymnorchis. 

Syn.: Gymnabicchia in Camus, Monogr. Orch. Kurop. 315, 1908 

[ 280 | 



Leucadenia in Fedde Rep. 16: 290, 1920, not Leucadenia 

Klotzsch, 1864 

Gymnorchisin Dostal, Fl. Czechosl. (Kvetena CSR) ed. 2, 2101, 

1950 

Gymnabicchia in Camus, Monogr. Orch. Europ. 315, 1908 
Observation: See Gymleucorchis, This replaces the earlier entry. 

Gymnorchis in Dostal, Fl. Czechosl. (Kvetena CSR) ed. 2, 2101, 

1950 
Observation: See Gymleucorchis. This replaces the earlier entry. 

Gymnotraunsteinera in Ciferri and Giacomini, Nomencl. Fl. Ital. 

pt. 1 : 171, 1950 
Gymnadenia X Traunsteinera 
1st hybr. : G. V allesiaca (as Orchis V allesiaca) 
Parentage : Gymnadenia conopea X Traunsteinera globosa 

Gymnaplatanthera in Lambert, Notes Orch. Hybr. 9, 1907 

Gymnadenia X Platanthera 

1st hybr. : G. Chodati (as Gymnadenia Chodati) 

Parentage : Gymnadenia conopea X Platanthera btfolia 



111. : in Fedde Rep. Sonderbeih. A. 5: t. 434, f. 1, 1939 

Observation : This replaces the earlier entry of Gymnplatanthera. 

Syn. : Gymnplatanthera in Camus, Monogr. Orch. Europ. 337, 

1908 

Gymplatanthera in Winchester Coll. N.H. Rep. 33, 1911 

Gymnplatanthera in Camus, Monogr. Orch. Europ. 337, 1908 
Observation : See Gymnaplatanthera. This replaces the earlier entry. 

Gymplatanthera in Winchester Coll. N.H. Rep. SS, 1911 
Observation : See Gymnaplatanthera. 

Hawkesara in Orch. Rev. 76: November, 1968 

Cattleya X Cattleyopsis X Epidendrum 

1st hybr. : //. Alex 

Parentage : Epicattleya Frances Dyer X Cattleyopsis Ortgiesiana 

Herbertara in Orch. Rev. 76: December, 1968 
Cattleya X Laelia X Schomburgkia X Sophronitis 

1st hvbr. : //, Thelma 

Parentage: Schombocattleya Harry Dunn X Sophrolaeliocattleya 

Radians 

Hermibicchia in Camus, Monogr. Orch. Europ. 312, 1908 
Observation: See Herminorchis. This replaces the earlier entry. 

[281 ] 



Hermileucorchis in Citerri and (iiacomini, Numeric]. Fl. Ital. pt. 1 : 

169, 1950 
Observation: See Herminorchis. 

Herminorchis in Fourn., Quatre Fl. Fr. 201, 1935 

Herminium X Leucorchis 

1st hybr. : H. Aschersoniana (as Gymnadenia Aschersoniana^ 1888) 



Parentage: Leucorchis albida X Herminium monorchis 

Observation : This replaces the earlier entry of Leucerminium and 
Ilerminiorchis. 
Syn. : Hermibiechia in Camus, Monogr. Orch. Europ. 312, 1908 

Leucerminium in Gartenfl, 85: 253, 1936 

Hermileucorchis in Ciferri and Giacomini, Nomencl. Fl. 
Ital. pt. 1 : 169, 1950 

Huntara nom. hvbr. gen. no\ . 

Arachnis X Euanthe X Renanthera X lamia X Vandopsis 

1st hybr. : //. Teoh Client: Swee (as Teohara Teoh Cheng Swee) 

Parentage: Arandanthe Kian Kee X Renanopsis Lena Rowold 
Huntleanthes in Orch. Rev. 71: January, 1966 

Cochleanthes X Huntleya 

1st hybr. : //. Narberth 

Parentage: Cochleanthes discolor X Huntleya Burtii (meleagris) 

Ionettia in Orch. Rev. 76: May, 19GS 

Comparettia X lonopsis 

1st hybr. : /. Rose Petal 

Parentage: Comparettia falcata X lonopsis paniculata 

Ioneidium in Orch. Rev. 7b: December, 1968 

Observation : See Ionocidium including the hybrid, Ioneidium Little 
Bit. 

Ionocidium in Orch. Rev. 76: May, 196S 
lonopsis X Oncidium 
1st hybr. : /. Ressie Toy 

Parentage : lonopsis paniculata X Oncidium pulchellum 
Syn.: Ioneidium in Orch. Rev. 76: December, 196S 

Jacquinparis Dillon in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 
Jacquiniella X Liparis 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Kagawara in Orch. Rev. 76: June, 196S 

Ascocentrum X Renanthera X Vanda 

1st hybr.: A'. Firebird (Orch. Rev. 77: March, 1969) 

[ 282 ] 



Parentage: Renattthera Storiei X Ascocenda Red Gem 

Observation : for the hybrid Kagawara William Doi see Greatwood- 

ara. 

Kamemotoara nora. hybr. gen. nov. 

Aerides X Euanthe X Rhynchostylis X Vanda 

1st hybr. : A\ Porchina Blue (as Perreiraara Porchina Blue) 

Parentage: Rhynchovandanthe Blue Angel X Aerides mitrata 

Laeliocatonia in Orch. Rev. 75: March, 1967 

Broughtonia X Cattleya X Laelia 

1st hybr. : L. Betty Holley 

Parentage : Laeliocattleya Bright Night X Broughtonia sanguinea 

Laeliopleya in Orch. Rev. 74: March, 1966 

Cattleya X Laeliopsis 

1st hybr. : L. Orange Glow 

Parentage: Cattleya aurantiaca X Laeliopsis domingensis 

Laycockara in Orch. Rev. 74-: August, 1966 

Arachnis X Phalaenopsis X Vandopsis 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Observation: For the hybrids Laycockara Lee Kim Hong and L. 

Ian Trevor, see Garayara. 

Leucadenia in Fedde Rep). 16: 290, 1920 

Observation: Not Leucadenia Klotzsch, 1864. See Gymleucorchis. 
This replaces the earlier entry. 

Leucerminium in Gartenfl. 85: 253, 1936 

Observation: See Herminorchis. This replaces the earlier entry. 

Leucororchis in Ciferri and Giacomini, Nomencl. Fl. Ital. pt. 1 : 

170, 1950 
Leueorchis X Orchis 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Observation : For the hybrids Leucorochis Bruniana and L. albucina 
see Dactyleucorchis. 

Lewisara in Orch. Rev. 76: February, 1968 
Aerides X Arachnis X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

1st hybr. : L. Max 

Parentage : Aeridachnis Bogor X Ascocenda Charm 

Observation : For the hybrid Lewisara Gracia see Gilmourara. 

Loroglorchis in Journ. Bot. Fr. 6: 110, 1892 

Observation: This replaces the earlier entry. See Orchimantoglos- 



sum. 



[ 283 ] 



Lymanara in Orch. Rev. 75: August, 1967 

Aerides X Arachnis X Renanthera 

1st hybr. : /.. Mary Ann 

Parentage: Aeridachnis Bogor X Renanthera Storiei 

Macradesa in Orch. Rev. 76: December, 1968 

Gomesa X Macradenia 

1st hvbr. : M. Brown Babv 

Parentage : Gomesa recurva X Macradenia brassavolae 

Maxillacaste in La Sem. Hortic. I: 350, 1897 

Majcillaria X Lycaste 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 



Mizutara in Orch. Rev. 74: August, 1966 
Cattleya X Diacrium X Schomburgkia 

1st hvbr. : M. Pink Kahili 

Parentage: Schombocattleya Diamond Head X Diacrium bicornutum 

Mokara in Orch. Rev. 77: December, 1969 

Arachnis X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

1st hvbr. : M. Wai Liang 

Parentage; Arachnis Ishbel X Ascocenda Red Gem 

Moscosoara in Orch. Rev. 77: September, 1969 

Broughtonia X Epidendrum X Laeliopsis 

1st hybr. : M. Santo Domingo 

Parentage : Broughtopsis Kingston X Epidendrum olivaceum 

Myrmecocattleya in Orch. Rev. 28: 50, 1920 
Observation: See Schombocattleya. 

Myrmecolaelia in Orch. Rev. 28 : 50, 1920 
Observation: See Schombolaelia. 

Nobleara in Orch. Rev. 77: September, 1969 

Aerides X Renanthera X I'anda 

1st hvbr. : N. Roval Monarch 

Parentage: Renantanda Jukichi Murata X Aerides odorata 

Oncidenia in Orch. Rev. 74: February, 1966 

Macradenia X Oncidium 

1st hybr. : 0. \ Ielen 

Parentage: Oncidium Helen Brown X Macradenia brassavolae 

Oncidpilia in Orch. Rev. 74: February, 1966 

Oncidium X Trichopilia 
1st hybr. : 0. Don Carlos 

[ 284 1 



Parentage : Oncidium Papilio X Trichopilia coccinea 

Onoara in Orch. Rev. 75: August, 1967 

Ascocentrum X Renanthera X Vanda X f'andopsis 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Observation : For the hybrid Onoara Sapphire see Giddingsara. 

Orchidatyla in Watsonia 6: 133, 1905 

Observation: Syn. : Orchidactylorhiza in Ann. Univ. Eotvos, Buda- 
pest 8: 315, 1960 

Orchidactylorhiza in Ann. Univ. Eotvos, Budapest 8: 315, 1966 
Observation : See Orchidactyla. 

Orchimantoglossum in Aschers. & Graebn., Syn. 3: 799, 1907 
Orchis X Himantoglossum 

1st hybr. : O. Lacasei 

Parentage : Orchis simia X Himantoglossum hircinium 

Observation: Because Himantoglossum is conserved over Loroglossum 

this replaces the earlier entry. 

Syn.: Loroglorchis in Journ. Bot. Fr. 6: 110, 1893 

Osmentara in Orch. Rev. 74: June, 1966 
Broughtonia X Cattleya X Laeliopsis 
1st hybr. : O. Bill 

Parentage : Cattleya R. Prowe X Broughtopsis Kingston (as Lioponia 
Kingston) 

Otonisia in Orch. Rev. 77: January, 1909 

Aganisia X Otosty/is 

1st hybr. : O. Broadway 

Parentage : Otosty/is brachystalix X Aganisia pulchella 

Pattoniheadia Dillon in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 

Pattonia X Bromheadia 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Perreiraara in Orch. Rev. 77: September, 1969 
A e rides X Rhynchostylis X Vanda 
1st hvbr. : not vet reported 

Observation : For the hybrid Perreiraara Porchina Blue see Kame- 
motoara. 

Pterocottia Dillon in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 

Pterostt/lis X Prescottia 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Reinikkaara nom. hybr. gen. nov. 



28 



3 



Aerides X Ascocentrum X Euiuithe X J' and a 

1st hybr. : R. Mem. Lillian Arnold (as Christieara Mem. Lillian 
Arnold) 

Parentage : Aerides Laicrenceae X Schlechterara Meda Arnold 
Renaglottis in Bull. Pac. Orch. Soc. Hawaii \i\ 85, 1957 

Renantkera X Trichoglottis 

1st hybr. : R. Lone Warrior (in Orch. Rev. 74: November, 1966) 

Parentage: Renantkera Storiei X Trichoglottis fasciata 

Renancentrum in Orch. lie v. 70: September, 1962 

Ascocentrum X Renanthera 

1st hybr. : A\ Yap Sin Yee (in Orch. Rev. 73: May, 1965) 

Parentage: Ascocentrum curvifolium X Renanthera Brookie Chandler 

Observation: For the hybrid Renancentrum Curvionica see Ascorella. 

Kenanthoceras nom. hybr. <jen. nov. 

Pteroceras X Renanthera 

1st hybr. : R. Kona (as Sarcothera Kona) 

Parentage: Pteroceras pallidas X Renanthera monachica 

Renanthopsis in Bull. Soc. Hort. Fr. ser. 5, 4: 342, 1931 
Observation: This replaces the earlier entry. 

Restesia Dillon in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 

Restrepia X Orleanesia 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Rhizanthera in Watsonia 6: 133, 1963 

Observation: Add Syn. : Dactylanthera in Willis, Diet. Fl. Plants 
and Ferns, ed. 7: 827, 1966 

Rhyndoropsis in Orch. Rev. 74: October, 1966 

Doritis X Pha/aenopsis X Rhynchostylis 

1st hybr. : R. Florida 

Parentage : Doritaenopsis Dorette X Rhynchostylis retusa 

Rodrenia in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 31 : 357, 196*2 
Observation: See Rodridenia. 

Rodridenia in Orch, Rev. 70: April, 1962 

Observation: Add Syn.: Rodrenia in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 31: 
357, 1962 

Rodriopsis in Orch. Rev. 77: September, 1969 

Rodriguezia X Ionopsis 

1st hybr. : R. Kdvvardine Klemm 

Parentage: Rodriguezia secunda X Ionopsis paniculata 

[ 280 ] 



Rumrillara in Orch. Rev. 77: September, 1969 
Ascocentrum X Neqfinetia X Rhynchostylis 
1st hybr.: R. Rosyleen 

Parentage: Rhynchocentrum Lilac Blossom X Ascofineiia Peaches 
Sarcorhiza in Orch. Rev. 74: January, I960 

Rhinerrhiza X Sarcochilus 

1st hybr. : S. Doroty 

Parentage : Sarcochilus Hartmanii X Rhinerrhiza divitiflora 

Sarcothera in Orch. Rev. 62: 92, 1954 

Renanthera X Sarcochilus 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Observation: For the hybrid Sarcothera Kona see Renanthoceras. 

This replaces the earlier entry. 

Schombocattleya in Orch. Rev. 13: 245, 1905 

Observation: Add Syn. : Schomocattleya in Orch. Rev. 28: 50, 1920 

Myrmecocattleya in Orch. Rev. 28 : 50, 1920 

Schombolaelia in Orch. Rev. 21: 254, 1913 

Observation: Add Syn. : Myrmecolaelia in Orch. Rev. 28: 50, 1920 

Schombonitis in Orch. Rev. 28: 50, 1920 

Schomburgkia X Sophronitis 



1st hybr. : S. Stella 

Parentage : Schomburgkia superbiens X Sophronitis grandiflora 

Schomocattleya in Orch. Rev. 28: 50, 1920 
Observation : See Schombocattleya. 

Selenipanthes Dillon in Amer. Orch. Soc. Bull. 38: 676, 1969 
Selenipedium X Lepa tithes 
1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Serapirhiza in Jahresb. Naturwiss. Yer. Wuppertal, Heft 2l/22 
108, 1968 

Serapias X Dactylorhiza 

1st hybr. : S. Sambuci no-lingua (Barla) comb. nov. 

(Basionym: Orchis sambucina var. sambucino- lingua Barla, Icon. 
Orch. 60, 1868) 
Parentage: Serapias Lingua X Dactylorhiza sambucina 

Shigeuraara in Orch. Rev. 77: November, 1969 

Renanthera X Ascoglossum X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Observation : For the hybrid Shigeuraara Cassino see DeWolfara. 

[ L>87 



Spathophaius in Orchid Weekly 1: 268, 1959 
Observation: This replaces the earlier entry. 

Stanfieldara in Orch. Rev. 77: November, 1969 
Sophronitis X Laelia X Epidendrum 

1st hvbr. : S. Will Bates 

Parentage : Sophrolaelia Psyche X Epidendrum vitellinum 

Sweetara in Anier. Orch. Soc. Bull. 88: 676, 1909 
Paraphalaenopsis X Rhynchostylis X Vanda 

1st hybr. : S. Oi Yee (as Yapara Oi Yee) 

Parentage : Paravanda Suavei X Vandachostylis Tan Geat Leng (as 
Khynchovanda Tan Geat Leng) 

Symphodontioda in Orchid Weekly 4- : 121, 1963 

Observation: This replaces the earlier entry. 

Symphodontoglossum in Orchid Weekly 4: 121, 1963 
Observation: This replaces the earlier entry. 

Symphyglossonia in Orchid Weekly 4: 121, 1963 
Observation : This replaces the earlier entry. 

Teohara in Orch. Itev. 76: February, 1968 

Arachnis X Renanthera X Vanda X Vandopsis 

1st hybr, : not yet reported 

Observation : For the hybrid Teohara Teo Cheng Swee see Huntara 

Vanglossum in Orch. Rev. 77: March, 1969 

Ascoglossum X Vanda 

1st hybr. : /'. Oriental Jewel 

Parentage : Vanda Merrillii X Ascoglossum calopterum 

Withnerara in Orch. Rev. 74: November, 1906 

Aspasia X Miltonia X Odontoglossum X Oncidium 

1st hybr. : IV. Moon Glow 

Parentage: Oncidasia Starlight X Odontonia Wonder 

Wrefordara in Amer. Orch. Soc. Hull. 38: 676, 1969 

Aerides X Arachnis X Euanthe X Vanda 

1st hvbr. : IV. Henry (as Burkillara Henry) 

Parentage : Aeridachnis Bogor X Vandanthe Kllen Noa 

Yapara in Orch. Rev. 74: November, 1966 

Phalaenopsis X Rhynchostylis X Vanda 

1st hybr. : not yet reported 

Observation : For the hybrid Yapara Oi Yee see Sweetara. 

[ 288 ] 



Zygomena in Die Natuerl. Pflanzenfara. Erg. -heft II, 92, 1908 
Zygopetalum X Zygosepalum (Mertadenium) 
1st hybr. : Z. Roeb/ingiana (as Zygopetalum Roeblingianum) 
Parentage : Zygopetalum maxillare X Zygosepalum labiosum 
111. : in Gard. Chron. ser. 3, 34: 227, f. 93, 1903 
Observation: This replaces the former entry. 

Zygostylis in Handbook Orch. Nomencl. and Reg., p. 47, 1965 
Observation: See Orch. Rev. 74: April, 1966. This replaces the 

earlier entry. 



Part II 
Parentage index to hybrid generic names 



Parent genera 
Aceras X Dacty lorhiza 

AeridesX Arachnis XAscocentrum XEuanthe 

XVanda 
Aerides X Arachnis X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

Aerides X Arachnis X Euanthes X Vanda 

Aerides X Arachnis X Renanthera 

A erides X Arachnis X Vanda 

Aerides X Ascocentrum 

Aerides X Ascocentrum X Euanthe X Vanda 

Aerides X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

Aerides X Euanthe X Rhy nchostylis X Vanda 

Aerides X Renanthera X Vanda 

Aerides X Renanthera X Vandopsis 

Aerides X Rhy nchosty lis X Vanda 

AganisiaXOtostylis 

AnselliaXCymbidium 

Arachnis X Aerides X Ascocentrum X Euanthe 
XVanda 

Arachnis X Aerides X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

Arachnis X A erides XEuanthe XVanda 

Arachnis X Aerides X Renanthera 
Arachnis X Aerides X Vanda 
Arachnis X Ascocentrum 
Arachnis XAscocentrum XVanda 



Hybrid genus 
Dactvloceras 



Gilmourara 

Lewisara 

VVrefordara 

Lymanara 

Burkillara 

Aeridocentrum 

Reinikkaara 

Christieara 

Kamemotoara 

Nobleara 

Carterara 

Perreiraara 



Otonisia 
Ansidium 



Gilmourara 

Lewisara 

VVrefordara 

Lvmanara 

Burkillara 

Ascorachnis 

Mokara 



[ 289 ] 



Araclmis X Euanthe X Renantliera X Vaiula 
X Vandopsis 

Arachnis X ParaphalaenopsisX Vandopsis 

Arachnis X Phalaenopsis X Vandopsis 

Arachnis X Renantliera XVandaX Vandopsis 
Arachnis X Rhvnchostvlis 



Huntara 
(iaravara 

Laycockara 
Teoh 



ara 



A 



• i i > 



hnostvlis 



AscocentruinX Aerides 

Ascocentrurn X Aerides X Arachnis X Euanthe 

X Vanda 

AscocentrurnX Aerides X Araclmis X Vanda 
Aseoeentrum X Aerides X Euanthe X Vanda 
Ascocentrurn X Aerides X Vanda 
Aseoeentrum X Arachnis 
Ascocentrurn X Arachnis X Vanda 



Aeridocentrum 



Aseoeentrum X Ascoglossum X Euanthe X Renan- 
tliera X Vanda 



(iilniou 



ara 



L 



ewisara 



Reinikkaara 

Christieara 

Ascorachnis 
Mokara 



DeWolfara 



Ascocentrurn X Ascoglossum X RenantheraX Vanda = Shigeuraara 



AscocentruinX Doritis 

Ascocentrurn X Doritis X Vanda 

AscocentrurnX KuanthesX RenantheraX Vanda 

Ascocentrurn X Euanthe X Renantliera X\ anda 
X Vandopsis 

Ascocentrurn X Neofinetia X Rhynehostylis 

Ascocentrurn X Phalaenopsis 

Aseoeentrum X Renantliera 
Ascocentrurn X Renantliera X Vanda 

Aseoeentrum X Renantliera X Vanda X Vandopsis 



Doricentrum 

Ascovandoritis 



Greatwoodara 



Giddingsara 
Rumrillara 
Asconopsis 
Renancentrum 

Kagawara 

Onoara 



Ascosrlossum X Ascocentrurn X Renantliera X Vanda = DeWolfara 



Ascosrlossum X Vanda 



Vanulossum 



Ascosrlossum X Ascocentrurn X RenantheraX Vanda = Shigeuraara 



Aspasia X Miltonia XOdontoglossum XOncidium 



Withnerara 



Batemannia XOtosty lis 



Bateostvlis 



Bifrenaria X Maxillaria 



Bifrinlaria 



B 



ia X M iltonia X Odontoulossurn 



D 



eirarmoara 



Bromheadia X Pattonia 



Pattoniheadia 



Broughtonia XCattleyaX Laelia 
Broughtonia X Cattleya X Laeliopsis 



Laeliocatonia 

Osmentara 



[ 290 ] 



Broughtonia XCattleyopsis 
Broughtonia X Cattleyopsis X Laeliopsis 
Broughtonia X Epidendrum X Laeliopsis 
Broughtonia X Laeliopsis XTetramicra 

Catasetum X Cycnoches 
Catasetum X Mormodes 

Cattleya X Broughtonia X Laelia 

Cattleya X Broughtonia X Laeliopsis 

Cattleya X Cattleyopsis X Epidendrum 

Cattleya X Diacrium X Schoraburgkia 

Cattleya X Laelia X Schomburgkia X Sophronitis 

Cattleya X Laeliopsis 

Cattleyopsis X Broughtonia 
Cattleyopsis X Broughtonia X Laeliopsis 

Cattleyopsis XCattleyaX Epidendrum 

Cattleyopsis X Domingoa 

CephalantheraXOphrys 

CochleanthesX Huntleya 
CochleanthesXStenia 

CoeloglossumX Platanthera 

Comparettia X lonopsis 

Cycnoches XCatasetum 
CvmbidiumX Ansellia 
Cy pripedium X Encyelia 

Dactylorhiza X Aceras 
Dactylorhiza X Leucorchis 
Dactylorhiza X Serapias 

Diacrium XCattleyaX Schomburgkia 
Diacrium X Laeliopsis 

Domingoa XCattleyopsis 

Doritis X Ascocentruin 

Doritis X Ascocentruin X Vanda 

Doritis XKingiella 

Doritis X Kingiella X Phalaenopsis 

Doritis X Phalaenopsis X Rhynchostylis 



Cattleyopsistonia 
Gauntlettara 
Moscosoara 
Bloomara 



Catanoches 
Catamodes 



Laeliocatonia 

Osmentara 

Hawkesara 

Mizutara 

Herbertara 

Laeliopleya 

Cattleyopsistonia 
Gauntlettara 
Hawkesara 
Cattleyopsisgoa 

Cephalophrys 

Huntleanthes 
Cochlenia 

Coeloplatanthera 
lonettia 

Catanoches 
Ansidium 
Encyelipedium 

Dactvloceras 

Dactyleucorchis 

Serapirhiza 

: Mizutara 
Dialaeliopsis 

: Cattleyopsisgoa 

Doricentrum 

Ascovandoritis 

Doriella 

Doriellaopsis 

Ithyndoropsis 



[ 291 ] 



EncycliaXCypripedium 

Kpidendrum X Broughtonia X Laeliopsis 
Epidendrum XCattleya XCattleyopsis 

Epidendrum X Laelia XSchomburgkia 
Epidendrum X Laelia X Sophronitis 

Euanthe X Aerides X Arachnis X Ascocentrum 
X Vanda 

Euanthe X Aerides X Arachnis X Vanda 

Euanthe X Aerides X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

Euanthe X Aerides X Rhvnchostvlis X Vanda 

Euanthe X Arachnis X Renanthera X Vanda 
X Vandopsis 

Euanthe X Ascocentrum X Ascoglossum 

X Renanthera X Vanda 



Encyclipedium 

Moscosoara 
Hawkesara 

Dillonara 
Stanfieldara 



Ciil 



inourara 



Wrefordara 

Reinikkaara 
Kaniemotoara 



Huntara 



DeVVolfara 



Euanthe X Ascocentrum X Renanthera X Vanda — Greatwoodara 
Euanthe X Ascocentrum X Renanthera 



X Vanda X Vandopsis 
GomesaX Macradenia 

GymnadeniaX Leucorchis 
GymnadeniaX IMatanthera 
GymnadeniaX Traunsteinera 

Herminium X Leucorchis 

Himantoglossum X Orchis 
HuntlcyaXCochlcanthes 

lonopsis XComparcttia 
lonopsis XOncidium 
lonopsis X Rodriguezia 



Jacquiniella X Li par is 

Kingiella X Doritis 

Kingiella X Doritis X I'halaenopsis 
Laelia X Broughtonia XCattleya 

Laelia X Cattley a X Schomburgkia 

X Sophronitis 
Laelia X Epidendrum X Schomburgkia 
LaeliaX Epidendrum XSophronitis 

Laeliopsis X Broughtonia XCattleva 
Laeliopsis X Broughtonia X Cattley opsis 



Giddingsara 

Macradesa 

Gymleucorchis 

Gymnaplatanthera 

Gymnotraunsteinera 

Herminorchis 



Orchimantoglossum 
Huntleanthes 



lonettia 

lonocidium 

Rodriopsis 

Jacquinparis 

Doriella 
Doriellaopsis 

Laeliocatonia 



Herbertara 

Dillonara 

Stanfieldara 

Osmentara 
(iauntlettara 



[ "292 ] 



Laeliopsis X Broughtonia X Epidendrum 
Laeliopsis X Broughtonia XTetramicra 
Laeliopsis XCattleya 
Laeliopsis XDiacrium 

Lepanthes XSelenipedium 

Leucorchis X Dactylorhiza 
Leucorchis XGymnadenia 
Leucorchis X Herminium 
Leucorchis XOrchis 

Liparis XJacquiniella 
Lycaste X Maxillaria 

Macradenia X Gomesa 
M acradenia X Oncidium 



Maxillaria XBifrenaria 
Maxillaria X Lycaste 

Miltonia X Aspasia XOdontoglossum 
XOncidium 

Miltonia XBrassia XOdontoglossum 



Morrnodes XCatasetum 

Neofinetia X Ascocentrum X Ithynchostylis 

Odontoglossum X AspasiaX Miltonia 
XOncidium 

Odontoglossum X Brassia X M iltonia 

Oncidium X Aspasia X M iltonia 
XOdontoglossum 

Oncidium X Ionopsis 
Oncidium X Macradenia 
Oncidium XTrichopilia 

OphrysXCephalanthera 

Orchis X Himantoglossum 
Orchis X Leucorchis 



OrleanesiaX Restrepia 

OtostylisXBatemannia 
OtostylisX Aganisia 



Moscosoara 
Bloomara 

Laeliopleya 

Dialaeliopsis 

Selenipanthes 

Dacty leucorchis 
Gymleucorchis 
Herminorchis 
Leucororchis 



Jacquinparis 
Maxillacaste 



Macradesa 
Oncidenia 



Bifrinlaria 
Maxillacaste 



= Withnerara 

= Deffarmoara 



Catamodes 



Rumrillara 



Withnerara 
Deerarmoara 



Withnerara 
Ionocidium 
Oncidenia 
Oncidpilia 

Cephalophrys 

Orchimantoglossum 
Leucororchis 



Restesia 

Bateostylis 
Otonisia 



[ -293 ] 



Paraphalaenopsis X Arachnis X Vandopsis 
Paraphalaenopsis X Rhynchosty lis X Yanda 



G 






aravara 



hweetara 



Pattonia X Bromheadia 



Pattoniheadia 



Phalaenopsis X Arachnis X Vandopsis 
Phalaenopsis X Ascocentrum 
Phalaenopsis X Doritis X Kin<riella 
Phalaenopsis X Doritis X Rhvnchostylis 
Phalaenopsis X Renanthera X Vandopsis 
Phalaenopsis X RhynchostylisX Vanda 

Platanthera XCoeloglossum 

Platanthera X ( J v rnnadenia 



PterocerasX Renanthera 



Lay cock a ra 

Asconopsis 

Doriellaopsis 

Rhyndoropsis 

Ernestara 

Yapara 

Coelo platanthera 
Gymnaplatanthera 



Renanthoceras 



Renanthera X Aerides X Arachnis 



Renanthera X Aerides X Vanda 

Renanthera X Aerides X Vandopsis 

Renanthera X Arachnis X EuantheX Vanda 
X Vandopsis 

Renanthera X Arachnis X Vanda X Vandopsis 

Renanthera X Ascocentrum 

Renanthera X Ascocentrum X Asco^lossurn 
X Euanthe X Vanda 

Renanthera X Ascocentrum X As 
X Vanda 



^lossum 



Lvmanara 

Nobleara 

Carterara 



Hunt 



Teohara 
Renancentrum 



DeWolfara 



Shiireuraara 



lienantheraX Ascocentrum X FAiantheX Vanda = Cireatwoodara 



Renanthera X Ascocentrum X Vanda 

Renanthera X Ascocentrum X Vanda 
X Vandopsis 

Renanthera X Phalaenopsis X Vandopsis 
Renanthera X Pteroceras 
Renanthera X Sarcochilus 
Renanthera X Trichocrlottis 



Kaerawara 



= Onoara 

= Krnestara 

= Renanthoceras 

"Sarcothera 

= Renaulottis 



Restrepia X Orleanesia 



Restesia 



RhinerrhizaX Sarcochilus 



Sarcorhiza 



Rhvnchostylis X Aerides X Kuanthe X Vanda 
RhynchostylisX Aerides X Vanda 
RhynchostylisX Arachnis 
Rhvnchostylis X Ascocentrum X Neofinetia 



Kamemotoara 

Perreiraara 

Arachnostylis 

Rumrillara 



[ 294 ] 



Rli ynchostylis X Doritis X Phalaenopsis 
Rhynchosty lis X Paraphalaenopsis X Vanda 
Rhy nchostylis X Phalaenopsis X Vanda 

Rodriguezia X Ionopsis 

Sarcochilus X Renanthera 
Sarcochilus X Rhinerrhiza 



Rhyndoropsis 
Sweetara 

Yapara 

Rodriopsis 

Sarcothera 
Sarcorhiza 



Schomburgkia XCattleyaXDiacrium 

Schomburgkia X Cattleya X Laelia 
XSophronitis 

Schomburgkia X Kpidendrum X Laelia 
Schomburgkia X Sophronitis 

Selenipedium X Lepanthes 

SerapiasX Dactylorhiza 

Sophronitis X Cattleya X Laelia 
X Schomburgkia 

Sophronitis X Epidendrum X Laelia 
Sophronitis X Schomburgkia 

SteniaXCochleanthes 

Tetramicra X Broughtonia X Laeliopsis 

TraunsteineraXGymnadenia 

TrichocrlottisX Renanthera 

TrichopiliaXOncidium 

Vanda X Aerides X A rachnis 

Vanda X Aerides X A rachnis X Ascocentrum 

Vanda X Aerides X Arachnis X Ascocentrum 
X Kuan the 

Vanda X Aerides X Arachnis X Kuanthe 



Mizutara 



Vanda X Aerides X Ascocentrum 

Vanda X Aerides X Ascocentrum X Kuanthe 

Vanda X Aerides X Euanthe X Rhynchosty lis 

Vanda X Aerides X Renanthera 

Wanda X Aerides X Rhynchostylis 

Vanda X Arachnis X Ascocentrum 

Vanda X Arachnis X Kuanthe X Renanthera 
X Vandopsis 



Herbertara 

Dillonara 

Schombonitis 



Selenipanthes 



Serapirhiza 



Herbertara 

Stanfieldara 

Schombonitis 



Cochlenia 



Bloomara 



Gvmnotraunsteinera 



Renaulottis 



= Oncidpilia 

= Burkillara 
— Lewisara 



Gilmourara 
Wrefordara 
Christieara 



Reinikk 



Kamemotoara 
Nobleara 
Perreiraara 
Mokara 



Huntara 



[ 29 



.j 



Vanda X Arachnis X Renanthera X Vandopsis 

Vanda X Ascocentrum X Ascoglossum X Kuanthe 
X Renanthera 

Vanda X Ascocentrum X Ascoglossum X Renanthera 

Vanda X Ascocentrum X Doritis 

Vanda X Ascocentrum X Kuanthe X Renanthera 

Vanda X Ascocentrum X Renanthera 

Vanda X Ascocentrum X Renanthera X Vandopsis 

Vanda X Ascoglossum 

Vanda X Paraphalaenopsis X Rhynchostylis 

Vanda X Phalaenopsis X Rhynchostylis 



Teoh* 



DeWolfara 



SI 



licreuraara 



Ascovandoritis 
Great wood ara 
Kagawara 
On oar a 
Vanglossum 
Sweetara 

Yapara 



Vandopsis X A erides X Renanthera 

Vandopsis X Arachnis X Kuanthe X Renanthera 
X Vanda 

Vandopsis X Arachnis X Paraphalaenopsis 

Vandopsis X Arachnis X Phalaenopsis 



Vandopsis X Arachnis X Renanthera X Vanda 

Vandopsis X Ascocentrum X Kuanthe X Renanthera 
X Vanda 

Vandopsis X Ascocentrum X Renanthera X Vanda 
Vandopsis X Phalaenopsis X Renanthera 



Carterara 



I luntara 
Garayara 
Lav cock ara 
Teohara 



Giddinirsara 



On 



oara 



Krnestara 



ZygopetalumXZygosepalum 



Zygomena 



ZygosepalumXZygopetalum 



Zvffomena 



[ 296 ] 



BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



Camdridge, Massachusetts, April 30, 1970 



Vol, 22, No. 9 



TEOSINTE INTROGRESSION IN THE 
MAIZE OF THE NOBOGAME VALLEY 

BY 

H. Garrison Wilkes 



Around Nobogame grows a plant called maizillo, or maizmillo. 

It is more slender than the ordinary corn-plant and the ears are 

very small. It grows among the corn and has to be weeded out, 

as it injures the good plants. However, several Mexicans assured 

me that, when cultivated, the ears develop. After three years 

they grow considerably larger and may be used as food. A man 

in Cerro Prieto raises this kind only : others mix it with the 

ordinary corn. I was told that people from the Hot Country 

came to gather it, each taking away about one almud to mix 

with their seed corn. The combination is said to give splendid 

results in fertile soil. 

Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico 

1902 

The Nobogame Valley is an isolated valley in the 
Sierra Mad re Occidental of Mexico, and the description 
by Lumholtz written over fifty years ago is an accurate 
account of present day hybridization of teosinte with 



maize. 



Th 



valley, 



bited by Tarahumare Ind 



d 



Mexicans, is approximately eight miles north of the old 
mining town of Guadalupe y Calvo in the southwestern 



f th 



f Chihuahua. M 



f 



floor is given over to the cultivation of maize, beans and 
squash or grazed, but teosinte does occur and is often 
abundant alons the margins of maize fields or in the 



willow thickets bordering the streams. The distribution 

[ 297 ] 



of teosinte is limited to probably not more than 25 square 
miles of the valley between the elevations of 1720 and 

1920 meters. 

The local inhabitants recognize teosinte as distinct 

from maize and call it maicillo or rnaiz silvestre. They 

are also familiar with the maize X teosinte hybrids and 
universally will claim that if the hybrid is cultivated for 
three years it produces maize. Some feel that hybridi- 
zation even improves the maize. 

Factors limiting gene exchange 

Both teosinte and maize are wind-borne, cross-polli- 
nated plants, and the prevention of hybridization with 
subsequent genetic exchange between the two species is 
dependent on (1) the spatial isolation of the two species, 
(2) the seasonal isolation of the two species, (3) the lack 
of fitness of the hybrid, and (4) the types of selection 
operating on the two parental populations. 

The most effective isolating mechanism in most areas 
where teosinte and maize are sympatric has been the 
mean mid-flowering date, with maize flowering 2-5 
weeks ahead of teosinte. Nobogame teosinte is unique 
in that it is the only teosinte population found in a habi- 
tat other than a cultivated field which is not seasonally 
isolated from maize. Maize of the Nobogame Valley is 
a five month type belonging to the race Cristalino de 
Chihuahua which is planted in May and harvested in 
September before the early killing frost. Both teosinte 
and maize reach mid-flowering in August. 

Hybridization at Nobogame 

In all the areas of both Guatemala and Mexico where 
teosinte and maize occur together there is some evidence 
(only a single Fj hybrid in some cases) of hybridization, 
but never has the author found such a large number of 
hybrids and clear and unmistakable effect of teosinte in- 

[ 298 ] 



Plate LXX\ 










*. 



m 















>:>> 



H 





























■:-*#' 



■■:-> 




I 






































■ ■ 






'»•■■ 



■ 



r* 


















O 



; 



Maize of the Nobo^ame Valley. Cristalino de Chihuahua is a poorly 
defined race in Mexico which is typically a dent corn. There is con- 
siderable variation from Held to field and very hard flinty kernels are 
frequent in the region where hybridization with teosinte occurs. 2/5 
actual size. 



a 



» 






r- 



tt 



ifl 



- «* 



-•■ 



.N 









[ 299 ] 



trogression in maize cobs as exists in Nobogame. The 
abundanee of Fi hybrids is comparable to Chalco, where 
several researchers have studied maize Xteosinte hybrids 
(Lopez y Para (1908), Collins (1921), Bukasov (1926, 
1930), Mangelsdorf (1952), and Wilkes (1967)). Unlike 
the region around Chalco, however, teosinte is not lim- 
ited to the cultivated fields. Teosinte also occurs in dense 

stands along the streams and in areas protected from 
grazing on the surrounding hills. 

Although all the fields had been harvested at the time 
of the field work (November), careful investigation indi- 
cates that maize Xteosinte hybrids are present in the 
fields proper, but not as abundant as they are on the 

marsrin of the maize fields or in the willow thickets alonir 



the stream. When maize Xteosinte hybrids are encoun- 



tered in the maize fields of Mexico, it is usually pre- 
sumed that they are from teosinte fruit-cases containing 
hybrid seed which were naturally disseminated in the 
field. In Nobogame, the female parent of the teosinte X 
maize hybrids is sometimes maize and thus the hybrids 

are often planted in the field. 



Teosinte introgression 

The evidence of teosinte introgression into maize is 
clearly seen in maize cobs throughout those parts of the 

valley where teosinte is most abundant. At harvest time 
the entire ear is brought to the granary, and for several 

weeks thereafter the ears are left to air dry in large piles 

around the courtyard. A sector of each of twenty piles 
representing twenty distinct fields of eight cultivators 
was studied. Twenty-five cobs were separated from the 
pile and shelled. Approximately \ of all the cob samples 
expressed the tripsacoid characteristic of a pronounced 



induration of the rachis and lower crlume. All of the 



piles possessed tripsacoid cobs (Wilkes, 11MJ8), although 



:{()() 



a few of the samples were free of tripsacoid cobs. 
Two of the fields where tripsacoid cobs had been har- 
vested were visited and teosinte was found to be abun- 
dant around the field margin. Although most of the 

teosinte plants had dispersed their seed and were dried 
and broken, several Fi hybrids were located which still 
possessed intact cobs. In one field, two teosinte backcross 
progeny of the F] maizeXteosinte hybrids were discov- 
ered, indicating that there issome reciprocal introgression. 
Despite the presence of reciprocal introgression, most 
of the gene flow is from teosinte to maize. Teosinte is 
a wild plant possessing the ability to disperse its seed as 
single rachis segments, while domesticated maize has a 
massive cob tightly enclosed by a husk system. Only 
those teosinte backcross segregates which possess the 
genetic control for a disarticulating rachis are able to dis- 



perse their seed. This factor is primarily responsible for 
the unidirectional flow of genetic material. The back- 
crosses to teosinte that segregate a more maize-like cob 
with non-disarticulating rachis disperse the entire spike 
as a whole. The numerous seed all germinating still at- 
tached to the cob are so crowded that they either choke 
each other out or develop into numerous spindly plants 
that fail to flower. In both cases, the genetic inheritance 
of the maize-like cob is lethal to a plant dependent on 
natural dispersal of its seed for survival. The selection 
for the disarticulating teosinte pistillate spike and dis- 
tribution of single seeds protected by a rachis-segment, 
along with a large population of wild plants in the sur- 
rounding region, appears to act against the effects of 

maize introgression on the pistillate spike of teosinte. 
Study of maize curs 

The evidence for introgression of tripsacoid characters 
from teosinte is objectively measurable in the morpholo- 

[ 301 ] 












m 



■ 



n 



*# ** 




W 



* 



— 

■-: * 



M* 






W * 




i 



A 





o 



en 



CO 



h- 



CD 



iO 



<* 



CO 



C4 



5 



- - 






Plate LXXVI. Evidence of teosinte introgression and 
maize teosinte hybridization. A. The cob to the far 
left is a typical maize ear and shows evidence of intro- 
gression of tripsacoid segments associated with chromo- 
some 9, and possibly chromosome t. The cobs to the 
ricrht are arranged in a series of increasingly pronounced 
tripsacoid characteristics. The extreme is the cob to the 
far right with its massive lower glumes and deep eu- 
pules. This cob, which was part of the maize harvest, 
is comparable in morphology to a maize backcross to the 
maize teosinte hybrid. 7/ 10 actual size. B. This Fi 
maize teosinte hybrid came from the same field as the 
cobs in A. Note the two-ranked rachis, the paired spike- 
lets, and the kernels forcing open the enclosing lower 
lumes: all typical characteristics of the Fi hybrid. 7/10 



or 



actual size. 



[ 303 ] 



gy of the maize cob (Galinat et al., 1956; Sehgal, 1963). 

The presence of a short, thick rachilla inclined to the 
axis, pronounced glume cushions, slightly upcurved 
glumes, comparatively soft rachis tissue, and well de- 
veloped central pith in the maize cobs of the fields sug- 
gests the introgression of segments of chromosome 9, 
and possibly chromosome 4, of teosinte. 

Eight ears selected by the cultivator as seed ears from 
a field where maize X teosinte hybrids were known to be 
abundant were studied. These very productive ears were 
not highly tripsacoid, but they too showed evidence of 

~ • i » 

teosinte introgression (rigid cob, straight rows, and in- 
durated glumes). Four of these ears were shelled and 
100 seeds from each ear were grown. Three cobs yielded 
all maize plants, but the fourth produced three maize X 
teosinte hybrids. This frequency of three maize X teosinte 
hybrids per 400 plants compares well with the number 
of maize X teosinte hybrids estimated to be present in the 

field and the abundance of highly tripsacoid cobs found 
in the total harvest. 

Maize X teosinte hybrid seed on the predominantly 
maize-pollinated ear can not normally be distinguished 
morphologically from pure maize. Yet at Nobogame 
several ears from the same held were selected from the 

total pile because they possessed smaller than usual seeds. 

These small seeded ears uniformly yielded maizeXteo- 
sinte hybrids when planted. It was found that if the ear 
is pollinated only by teosinte, the hybrid seeds are smaller 
than the few hybrid seeds found on a predominantly 
maize-pollinated ear. Thus there 4 appears to be a chemi- 
cal feed-back mechanism (growth hormone.'') between 

the developing seed and the cob. This postulated hor- 
mone miiiht act to stimulate 4 the conduction of food 



through the cob to the developing seed. 

Controlled pollinations of teosinte on the corn inbred 

! 304 ] 



A158 have produced seeds which are smaller and weigh 
less than self pollinated A 158. This phenomena is not 
universal because controlled pollinations of teosinte on 
the New England Flint, Wilburs Flint, produced hybrid 
seed which are indistinguishable in size and weight from 
self-pollinated Wilburs Flint. 



Discussion 

Maize and teosinte are lull v fertile, and in the Xobo- 
game Valley the two hybridize naturally. MaizeXteo- 
sinte hybrids are known from other regions in Mexico 
and Guatemala, but Nobogame is unique because hy- 
brids are in sonic cases cultivated because the inhabitants 
feel they improve the maize and in others the hybrids 
are unknowingly planted in the maize fields. 

Wild teosinte is abundant in the region, and hybrids 
are almost as abundant in the fields as on the margin of 
the fields. Because the method of cultivation of maize 
has not changed appreciably in the last hundred years 
this pattern of an abundance of teosinte hybrids on the 
seed ears is suspected to have been widespread in the 
past in regions where it is almost extinct today. Such a 
pattern of hybridization with teosinte would account for 

the widespread tripsacoid characteristics now found in 
the races of maize on the Central Plateau ( Wellhausen 
et ah, 1950) and adjacent regions. This hybridization in 
the past would also explain why the teosinte of the 
Central Plateau is one of the most maize-like races of 

teosinte. 

The observations of the incorporation of teosinte seg- 
ments from chromosome 9, and possibly 4, are interesting 



also because Sehgal (1963) has shown that, under experi- 
mental conditions, incorporationof teosinte chromosomes 

9 and 4, either alone or in combination, in a uniform 
maize-inbred, increases the length of the cob. It is pos- 



30.5 



j 



Plate LXXVII 



^S 














. 















% 












< 












•^ 























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V 



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Evidence of tripsacoid characters in Nobogame cobs. A. These mai/e cobs arc from a 
typical field where hybridization with teosinte was known to occur. Actual size. B. 
The short, thick rachilla inclined to the axis, the slightly upcurved flumes, and the 
pronounced glume cushions suggest the introgression of tripsacoid segments on chromo- 
some 9, and possibly chromosome 4, from teosinte. The rachis tissue is comparatively 



soft and the central pith is well developed. :'> actual size. 



tulated that, since increased cob length is selected lor in 
seed ears, teosinte hybridization is of positive selection 
value in the maize of Xobogame. 



Summary 

1. A detailed analysis of the maize fields was made in 
the Nobogame Valley in southwestern Chihuahua, 
where the pattern of cultivation for maize has not 
changed appreciably in the last one hundred years. 
The maize grown around Nobogame is a five month 
type belonging to the race Cristalino de Chihuahua. 
The teosinte belongs to the race Xobogame and is 
abundant along the margin of maize fields and grow- 
ing wild in the non-cultivated parts of the valley. 



2. Maize and teosinte are not seasonally isolated as they 
are at most other sites where the two occur together. 
The mid-flowering times overlap in August and maize 
X teosinte hybrids occur naturally. Teosinte pollen 

is sufficiently abundant at flowering that many polli- 
nations on maize cobs are bv a teosinte parent. Seed 
cars of maize have been shown to be contaminated by 

teosinte pollen resulting in the actual planting of 

maize X teosinte hybrids by the cultivator. 



;>. The cobs of the maize planted in the valley show 
pronounced signs of tripsacoid germ plasm such as 
induration of the lower glume and a straight rigid 
cob. These characteristics are attributed to the intro- 
gression of tripsacoid genes via direct hybridization 
with teosinte followed by subsequent introgrcssion 
from maize and teosinte backcross progeny. The 
maize backcross progeny are usually harvested while 
the teosinte backcross progeny are usually left stand- 
ing in the field. Although introgression is reciprocal, 

[ 307 





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w 

X 
X 



Plate LXXVIII. Teosinte-pollinated maize ears. 
A. When the maize ear is pollinated only by teo- 
sinte, the hybrid seed are smaller than the few 
hybrid seed found on a predominantly maize pol- 
linated ear, which are indistinguishable from the 
pure maize seed. The ear to the left is the inbred 
A 1 58 and the ear to the right is a controlled polli- 
nation of teosinte pollen on the ear of A 158. 7/10 
actual size. B. These ears are open pollinated ears 
from Nobogame. The seed are of normal size on 
the ear to the left. The seed shelled from the ear 
to the right are smaller and all produced Fi maize 
teosinte hybrids. If the entire ear is pollinated 
by teosinte, none of the hybrid seed develop to the 
size of a normal maize kernel. This dwarfing effect 
only occurs if the entire ear is made up of hybrid 
kernels. Note also the tendency of the hybrid ker- 
nels to produce pointed seed, a character often 
found in pop corns. 7/ 10 actual size. 



309 



the main flow of genes appears to be from teosinte 
to maize, since the genetic incorporation of a maize- 
like rachis results in the inability to disperse 4 seed and 
the extinction of these maize introgressed teosinte 

plants. 



4. It is postulated that the hybridization of teosinte and 
maize on the Central Plateau in the past is compara- 
ble to the present hybridization of teosinte and maize 

at Nobogame. This hypothesis accounts for both the 
widespread presence of tripsacoid characteristics in 
the maize of the Central Plateau and the maizoid 
characteristics of the teosinte. The introgression of 
teosinte segments following maize X teosinte hybrid- 
ization would have been of positive selection value if 

it resulted in a lamer ear. 



[810] 



LITERATURE CITED 



Bukasov, S. 1926. Un hibrido de maize y Euchlaena Mexicana. Fores- 
tal. (Mex.) 4: 38. 

Bukasov, S. 1930. Teosinte. in The cultivated plants of Mexico, 
Guatemala and Colombia. Bull. Appl. Bot. Genet. & Plant Breed- 
ing 47: 141-148. 

Collins, G. X. 1921. Teosinte in Mexico. Journ. Hered. 12:339- 
350. 

Galinat, W.C., P.C. Mangelsdorf and L. Pierson. 1956. Estimates 
of teosinte introgression in archaeological maize. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 
Harvard Univ. 17: 101-124. 

Lopez y Parra, R. 1908. El teosinte. Mexico. 

Lumholtz, C. 1902. Unknown Mexico. Charles Scribner's Sons, 
New York. 

Mangelsdorf, P.C. 1952. Hybridization in the evolution of maize. 
in J.W. Gowen (ed.), Heterosis, pp. 175-198. Iowa State College 
Press, Ames. 

Mangelsdorf, P.C, R.S. MacNeish, and VV.C. Galinat. 1967. Pre- 
historic maize, teosinte and Tripsacum from Tamaulipas, Mexico. 
Bot. Mus. Leaf!. Harvard Univ. 22: 33-63. 

Mangelsdorf, P.C, and R.G. Reeves. 1959. The origin of corn III. 
Modern races, the product of teosinte introgression. Bot. Mus. 
Leafl. Harvard Univ. 18: 389-411. 



Sehgal, S.M. 1963. Effects of teosinte and "Tripsacum" introgres- 
sion in maize, Bussey Institution, Harvard Univ. 

Wellhausen, E.J., L.M. Roberts and E. Hernandez-X, in collabora- 
tion with P.C. Mangelsdorf. 1952. Races of maize in Mexico. Bus- 
sey Institution, Harvard Univ. 

Wilkes, H.G. 1967. Teosinte: the closest relative of maize. Bussey 
Institution, Harvard Univ. 

Wilkes, H.G. 1968. Teosinte X maize hybrids, Nobogame, Mexico. 
Maize Genetics Coop. Newsletter 42: 165-166. 



[311 1 



EARLY EIGHT-ROWED MAIZE FROM THE 

MIDDLE RIO GRANDE VALLEY, 

NEW MEXICO 

BY 

Walton C. Galinat 1 , Theodore R. Reinhart 2 , 

and Theodore R. Frisrie 3 



A mutual interest of the maize phylogenist (senior 
author) and the archaeologist (junior authors) in the pre- 
historic spread of the eight-rowed race of maize, Maiz 
de Ocho, has made this and several other similar studies 
possible. Their respective interests, however, lie in dif- 
ferent aspects of the same problem. The evolutionary 
history of Maiz de Ocho involves the origin of the Corn 
Belt dent as well as many sweet corn varieties and its 
understanding could lead to the synthesis of even more 
productive strains in the future. It is an archaeological 
artifact of certain Indian cultures. The distribution of this 
race may also reveal some of the history of its possessors. 
In an earlier study it was found that the dates for this 

1 Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of 
Massachusetts, Waltham, Mass. and Honorary Research Associate in 
the Bussey Institution of Harvard University. 

2 Asst. Prof., Department of Anthropology, College of William and 
Mary, Williamshurg, Va. 

Ph.D. Candidate, Dept. of Anthropology, Southern Illinois Uni- 
versity, Carbondale, 111. 

This investigation was supported in part by a grant (GB- 15767) 
from the National Science Foundation to the senior author and in 
part by the Bussey Institution of Harvard University. 

[ 313 J 



3 



eight-rowed race generally became older toward the 
Southwest (Galinat and Gunnerson, 1963). A continuity 
in its distribution between the Plains and the Southwest 
was established by the discovery of sites for Maiz de 
Ocho in Chacuaco Canyon in southeastern Colorado 
(Galinat and Campbell, 1907). The date of A. IX 1140 
for this Colorado material leaves unsolved the problem 
on direction of spread because now the slightly older 
dates of A.l). 1040 have been discovered for this race at 
the Blain Site in Ohio (Galinat, 11)01)) and of A.l). 11-25 
±70 at the Miller Site in Ontario (Kenyon, 1968). 

Documentation of the spread of Maiz de Ocho, like 
that of other cultural artifacts, depends upon the dis- 
covery of its oldest possible remains at certain critical 
locations. The present report on the oldest Maiz de Ocho 
yet discovered in North America has, therefore, particu- 
lar significance in revealing the spread of this race of 

maize. 

The radiocarbon dates herein reported were deter- 
mined gratuitously by Dr. Henry F. Nelson of the lie- 
search Laboratory of the Mobil Oil Corporation, Dallas, 

Texas. The date of 18 ±138 B.C. (SM 1021) at the 

BR-45 Site came from an indirect association in debris 
between some wood and the cobs of Maiz de Ocho. The 
shallow and homogeneous nature of this debris seems to 
rule out any significant disparity between the age of the 
cobs and that of the analyzed wood, The more recent 
date of A.l). 370±168 (SM 1018) at Boca Negra Cave 
for this eight-rowed race came from wood which was 
charred in the same hearth with the cobs. At the third 
location for Maiz de Ocho discussed here, the Artificial 
Leg Sites, the dates of A.l). 5,50 to A.I). 7O0 for the 
cobs of this race were determined by combining data 
from ceramic analysis, pal ynology and archaeomagnet ism 

(Frisbie, 1957). 

314 ] 



The Locations and Cultural Phases of the Sites 



The BR-45 Siti 



The 1511-45 Site is located on the west mesa at 0100 
feet about 12^- miles west of the Rio Grande River at 
Albuquerque, New Mexico, while the Boca Negra Cave 
and Artificial Leg Sites are elevated at about 5100 feet 
on the first terrace closer to the river. The other maize- 
containing sites previously reported in central New 
Mexico are on the same western side of the river and to 
the southwest of the Middle llio Grande Valley (Plate 

LXX1X). 

The west mesa is now dissected by arroyos sloping in 
a west-to-east direction toward the river. The arroyos 
cut through dune-covered ridges which were the occupa- 
tion sites. During a number of wetter years than at 
present, maize was probably grown on the flood plains 
where these more modern arroyos now occur. 

The BR-45 Site occupies the south slope of one of the 
sandy ridges just below its crest. It consists of two small 
pithouses with outside living areas to the east of the 
dwellings, as described in detail by Reinhart (19C 



The cultural affinities at the BR-45 Site were of the 
Alameda Phase which is an early Basketmaker 1 1 1 mani- 
festation. Its identification is based on typological com- 
parisons, including ceramics, to known Basketmaker 1 1 1 
material. These identifications (Reinhart, 1967a) suggest 
that the dunes were stabilized approximately 2000 to 
1.500 years ago during a period of increased moisture. 
This dating also appears to fit the moist period postulated 
as being between the Fairbank and Whitewater droughts 
(Antevs, 10.5.5) as well as the radiocarbon date of 18=*= 
1558 B.C. for the BR-45 maize, as will be described later. 



315 J 



Plate LXXIX 




The enlarged insert shows the three site areas, BR-45, Boca Negra Cave, and 
Artificial Leg, which are studied in this paper. Other maize-containing sites in 
New Mexico are indicated to the southwest of this Albuquerque area. 



1310] 



Hoc a Negra Cavi 



Boca Negra Cave is situated on the northeast side of 
a volcanic cone near the city of Albuquerque. The cave 
measured 27-j feet deep, 20£ feet wide and G feet high 
before excavation. The details of the excavations are 
described by Reinhart (1908). 

Because the terrain around the cave and for a mile to 
the river is rocky and otherwise unsuited for agriculture, 
the site probably never had a permanent agricultural 
settlement. Nevertheless a long record of maize and other 



artifacts was left apparently by migrants who camped at 
the cave for a short time and then moved to other Bas- 
ketmaker III agricultural sites along the river such as 
those at Artificial Leg. 

The stratigraphy at Boca Negra Cave has a bearing 
on our understanding of the evolution of southwestern 



maize. Its succession includes material which is both 
older at the lower level and more recent at the upper 
level than that found at the BR- 45 Site. The earliest 
culture present was of the late Atrisco Phase (Campbell 
and Ellis, 1952) which dates prior to 1000 B.C. and is a 
local Cochise manifestation. While incipient agriculture 
may have been practiced, there is no direct evidence of 
it either at Boca Negra Cave or at the west mesa sites 
at this early time. The Atrisco Phase is preceramic and 
is represented here only by lithic tools. While the next 
Phase, Rio Rancho, was also preceramic, it contained 
cobs of Chapalote, the indigenous race of the Southwest 
and Mexico which will be described later. Both the ce- 
ramics and a new race of maize, Maiz de Ocho, appear 
in the Alameda Phase, an early Basketmaker 11 I culture 
dated at A.D. 370=1=168 at the Boca Negra Cave Site. 
This stratigraphy extending over a 3000 year period to- 
gether with the racial identity of the maize present are 
given in Table III. 

[ 317 



rn 



Fin: Artificial Leg Sitks 



The three excavated Artificial Leg Sites are also lo- 
cated near the river about 12 miles north of Boca Negra 
Cave and just to the west of Sandoval (Corrales), New 
Mexico (Frisbie, 1967). The initial settlement of Site I 
occurred during the same drought period around A.I). 
,>.">() when Maiz de Ocho was introduced into the already 
established culture of Boca Nejjra Cave. The settlers at 



Artificial Leg also appear to have migrated from their 
original home on the mesa (BR-45) to these sites near 
the river in order to have moist soil necessary for the 
growth of their maize. 

The shelters at these Middle Rio Grande Valley sites 
were pithouses. Their structure coincides more closely 
with that of the Mogollon custom in the South than with 
that of the Anasazi of the North. They were nearly cir- 
cular in outline with either a flattened or concave east 
side. The roofs were usually supported by four posts. 
Floor features consisted of a centrally located, circular, 
collared hearth, deflectors, ash pit, ladder holes, and an 
easterly oriented ventilator shaft. Other floor features 
included depressions and storage pits, many widened at 
their bases. 

At Artificial Leg, each site consisted of a group of at 
least four such pithouses. One of these structures was 
larger than the others, being 26 feet in diameter rather 
than the approximately 1(> feet commonly found. This 
larger pithouse, more properly termed "lava," served 
ceremonial purposes, as indicated by its sipapv or ''open- 
ing to the underworld," by its loot drums and by its 
location apart from the other pithouses. The develop- 
ment of these ceremonial structures again reflects Mo- 
gollon customs. 

The appearance of the new productive races of maize, 

[318] 



Maiz de Ocho and Pima Papago, with the Mogollon 
type of pithouse, especially the ceremonial type, indi- 
cates that the two mav have diffused together from the 



South. The short tenure of these races on the mesa which 
was terminated by drought may not have allowed time 
for the elaboration of appropriate ceremonialism. 

The evidence from ceramics at these sites near the 
river indicates contacts with both the southern and 
northern cultures. Potsherds from the Alma Plain which 
originated with the Mogollons from the South were 
found with mineral and carbon painted affiliates of Lino 
Gray representing Anasazi wares from the North. While 
the data on ceramics do not in themselves verify the 
route of Maiz de Ocho, they do reveal that trade was 
well established between the South and North. This new 
race of maize would probably have been included in some 
of the transactions. 



rf* 



Tiik Maize 



Chapalote is the indigenous race of maize of the area. 
It traces back to preceramic times during the Rio Kancho 
phase at Boca Negra Cave. About 125 miles to the south 
at Bat Cave, New Mexico, Chapalote was dated at 2300 
B.C. where its evolution eventually involved a second 

element, the wild relative teosinte, at 500 B. C. (Mangels- 
dorf and Smith, 1949; Mangelsdorf et al., 1967). 

Chapalote may be identified either by its kernels or by 
its cobs. Its kernels are deeper than wide in shape and 
generally small and flinty although a floury form was 



ted in Bask 



(d 



in the cob axis (rachis) immediately above the attach- 
ment point of each pair of pistillate spikelets) are narrow 
(3 to 4 mm. wide) and the width and height (internode 
length) are usually of about equal dimensions. Evolved 
Chapalote has 12 to 16 rows of kernels while the earliest 

[ 319 



TABLE 1. 



Sample Number 



/ 



BR-45/M1-1 



II 



-2 



II 



-3 



it 



-4 



BR-45 7 M2 



MAIZE FROM THE BR-45 SITE, NEW MEXICO 



No. Kerne 
Rows 



12 



12 



12 



12 



8 



* 



w Cupule 
Widrh(mm) 




5.6 



5.3 



5.4 



5.6 



6.0 



Internode 



Length! mm) 



3.5 



3.2 



3.5 



3.6 



3.0 



Cupule 
Shape w/t 



1.6 



1.7 



1 .5 



1.6 



2.0 



R 



ace 



Pima Papago 



ii 



ii 



ii 



ii 



ii 



M 



Maiz de Ocho 



*Row number estimated on the basis of cob fragments consisting of at least two parellel rows 
of cupules. 



\N'X cupule v/idth ^cupule internode length. 



320 



Chapalote, such as that from Bat Cave, has eight kernel 
rows. The race lleventador is very similar to evolved 
Chapalote except for having colorless instead of brown 
pericarp. Because no distinction between Keventador 
and Chapalote was possible in this archaeological ma- 
terial, the name of the older race, Chapalote, is used. 



The race of particular concern, JVIaiz de Ocho, was the 
third major element involved in the evolution of maize 
in the Southwest. Previously this race was thought to 
have arrived in New Mexico at about A.l). TOO, the date 
of its earliest remains at Tularosa Cave (Cutler, 1952). 
Apparently it appeared at about the same time 90 miles 
northward at Cebollita Cave (Plate 23 F of Galinat and 
Ruppe, 1961). The earlier dates of 18±138 B.C. for 
Maiz de Ocho 75 miles to the northeast at BR-45 and 
A.l). 370±1G8 at Boca Negra Cave do not negate the 
overall evidence for a southern origin. The next oldest 
date for this race is A.l). 200-850 previously reported 
for a site in Tamaulipas, Mexico (Mangelsdorf et al., 
1967). The Tamaulipas material may be on a parallel 
pathway leading to the Davis Site in Texas which had 
this eight-rowed race at A.D. 800-1000 (Jones, 1949). 
The Maiz de Ocho ancestral to that from the Albuquer- 
que area of New Mexico more probably came directly 
through Chihuahua and Sonora, as indicated by four 



caves in these Mexican states yielding prehistoric re- 
mains of this race (Mangelsdorf and Lister, 1956). Appar- 
ently southern United States had multiple connections 
through the Sierra Madre Occidental of northern Mexico 
from some common source, perhaps on the west coast of 
southern Mexico. Maiz de Ocho is thought to have been 
derived originally from Colombia, South America (Gali- 
nat and Gunnerson, 19G3). 

The kernels and cob of Maiz de Ocho are distinctive 
from those of Chapalote. They occur in only eight rows 

[ 321 ] 



(borne in pairs at four ranks of cupules) instead of the 12 
to 1G rows which characterize the older race. The shape 
of kernel is also different, being wider than deep rather 
than deeper than wide. Ln addition, the shape of the 
cupule is definitive. The ratio of cupule width/internode 
length is about two in Maiz de Oeho in contrast to the 
more narrow cupules of Chapalote, especially near the 
tip of the cob where the ratio is close to one. 



rvi 



I'm: Maize ekom the BK-45 Sitf 



The maize from RR-45 consisted of five broken and 
eroded cobs. The kernel row number, cupule width and 
internode length of these specimens was measured in 
order to establish their racial identity (Table I). One of 
the cobs represented the race Maiz de Ocho and the other 
four were from its hybrid, Pima Papago. The eight- 
rowed cob could be a segregate out of the hybrid. In 
any case the hybrid was most abundant. The early ac- 
ceptance of the hybrid may be due to its rapid adaptation 
through the segregation of favorable genes from its in- 
digenous parent, Chapalote. The increased vigor and 
productivity associated with such a wide cross must have 
promoted its spread, probably far ahead of the Maiz de 
Ocho parent. 

The cultivation of the productive races of maize, Maiz 

de Ocho and Pima Papago by the people at BR-45 
seems to have bound their way of life to farming. Serv- 
ing these people as a major source of food, they became 
dependent upon it. Subsequently alter a protracted dry 
period they abandoned the mesa for sites nearer the river 
which provided the moist soil necessary for the growth 
of their maize. After abandonment, the cobs of Maiz de 
Ocho and Pima Papago and other debris on the ridge 
sites became buried under the sands of time until the 
present excavation. Previously when their ancestors with 

[ 322 ] 



TABLE I!. 



MAIZE FROM BOCA NEGRA CAVE, NEW MEXICO 



Samp 



/ 



BB-1/M1-1 

-2 

-3 

-4 



/ 
II 

II 

n 



BB- 
BB- 
BB- 



1/M2 

1/M3 
1/M4 



ii 



-l 

-2 

BB-1/M5-1 

-2 

BB-1/M6-1 

-2 



/ 
ii 

ii 

n 






-4 



BB-1/M7-1 



II 



M 



-2 

-3 



BB-1/M3-1 

-2 



ii 



/ 



BB-1/M9-1 

-2 
-3 
-4 

BB-l/MlO-1 



n 



BB- 



/ 
n 

1/M11 



-2 



c . 



c . 



c . 



c . 

c . 



c . 



c . 



c . 



c . 



No. Kernel 

Rows 



12 
12 
12 
12 
10 
12 
10 
14 
10 
10 
10* 

8 

8 

8 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

10* 

12* 

10 

12* 
10 
6 
14 



* 



Cupule 

Width(mm) 



3.5 
4.0 
5.0 
3.5 
6.5 
4.6 
6.5 
9.5 
5.0 
5.5 
5.7 
5.4 
5.6 
5.5 
4.6 
3.1 
3.2 
3.5 
3.4 
3.1 
6.5 
7.3 
6.0 
5.3 
6.7 
8.1 
4.5 



Intemode 

Length(mm) 



3.5 
2.8 
3.2 
3.5 
3.0 
3.0 
3.7 
5.3 
3.6 
3.5 
4.2 
4.0 
4.1 
4.1 
4.0 
3.1 
3.2 
3.5 
3.5 
3.3 

2.6 

3.0 
3.3 
3.6 
4.2 
4.6 
4.5 



Cupule 

Shape w/£ 



1.0 

1.4 

1.6 

1.0 
2.2 

1 .5 

1.8 
1.8 

1.4 

1.6 
1.4 
1.1 

1 .4 
1 .3 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 

1.0 
0.97 

0.94 

2.5 
2.4 
1.8 

1.5 

1 .6 
1.8 
1 .0 



Race 



Chapalote 
Chapalote Mix 
Chapalote Mix 
Chapalofe 
Maiz de Ocho 
Maiz de Ocho Mix 
hAoiz de Ocho 
Pima Papago 
Maiz de Ocho Mix 
Maizode Ocho Mix 
Maiz de Ocho Mix 
Maiz de Ocho Mix 
Maiz de Ocho Mix 
Maiz de Ocho Mix 
Chapalote Mix 
Chapalote 
Chapalote 
Chapalote 
Chapalote 
Chapalote 
Maiz de Ocho 
Pima Papago 
Maiz de Ocho 
Pima Papago 
Maiz de Ocho Mix 
Matz de Ocho Mix 
Chapalote 



*Row number estimated on a basis of fragments consisting of at least two parallel rows of cupules 
c . - carbonized cob . 



[ 323 ] 



less productive food plants encountered similar drought 
conditions on the mesa, they merely adapted by shifting 
their subsistence patterns to include more wild food 
rather than seek a more suitable farming area. 

The early radiocarbon date (18 ±138 B.C.) and the 
major cultural traits at BR-45 indicate that the races of 
maize, Maiz de Ocho and Pima Papago, located there 
were originally derived from the southern Mogollon cul- 
ture rather than from the Anasazi of the San Juan drain- 
age area to the North. That is, the age of the Basket- 
maker cultural level at BR-45 and the other nearby sites 
discussed in this paper is intermediate between that of 
the older Mogollon cultures of the South and the more 
recent San Juan cultures of the North. This suirgests 



^£5 



that the Middle Rio Grande Valley was an area of tran- 
sition from South to North. 



The Maize from Boca Negra Cave 

Before the introduction of Maiz de Ocho, the indige- 
nous race of maize, Chapalote, occurred in Basket maker 
II (preceramic) times about twelve miles away toward 
the river at Boca Negra Cave. Later the people presuma- 
bly moving from the drying mesa area (BK-45) left their 
Maiz de Ocho and Pima Papago maize during the early 
Basketmaker 1 1 1 period (the end of the Alameda Phase). 
The radiocarbon date of A.I). 370=±=1C>8 for this new 
maize at the cave is a jump of over 400 years over that 
reported for its collection at BR-45, only 12^ miles away 
but 1000 feet higher on the w T est mesa. 

There were 24 eroded cobs, eight of which had been 
carbonized, from Boca Negra Cave. The excavation was 
in stratigraphic layers from the surface to a depth of 40 
inches. The cobs represent two distinct races, Chapalote 
and Maiz de Ocho and their hybrid, Pima Papago, as 
well as some intermediate types classified as "mixed" 

[ 324 ] 



TABLE II 



THE STRATIGRAPHY AND MAIZE FROM BOCA NEGRA CAVE 



Phase of 
Cultural Association 



Pueblo IV to Historic 



Pueblo IV 



Pueblo III to IV 



Pueblo II to IV 



Early Alameda 



1 



Rio Rancho to Alameda 



11 



H 



11 



it 



Rio Rancho to Early Alameda 



Rio Rancho 



2 



Atrisco 



Maize 
Sample 

Number 

BB-1 



Ml 



M2 



M3 



M4 



M9 



M5 



M6 



M8 



M7 



0) 

o 

D 
O 



V 



2 






























3 



2 







Race of Maize 



x 

E 



a. 

a 



U 



2 































1 







o 

o 

a. 

o 

Q- 
O 

E 















1 



2 























>< 
E 

o 

0) 












1 











2 



4 















o 



o 

0) 
T5 

N 

5 








1 







1 



2 























1 - Early Basketmaker III, dated A.D. 370+168 

2 - Basketmaker II, preceramic 

3 - Local Cochise, no direct evidence for agriculture prior to 1000 B.C 



Two additional maize samples (BB-1/M10 and BB-l/Mll) of unknown 
cultural association are not included. 



[ ;*2. 



) 



which probably represent the backcross or segregating 
progenies derived from the hybrid. The typical hybrid 



type (Pima Papago) combined the higher kernel row 
number (12 rows) of Chapalote with the wider cupules 
((> to 10 mm.) of Maiz de Ocho. When the mixed modi- 
fication is toward Maiz de Ocho, the specimen is scored 
as Maiz de Ocho Mix. When the direction is that of 
Chapalote, it is identified as Chapalote Mix. The data 



d forms were identified and 



f 



for the various specimens 



l\ables II and I 



The Maize from the Artificial Leg Sites 



All of the 13 cob fragments of maize from the Artifi- 
cial Leg Sites were completely carbonized. Ten of these 
came from Site I dated at A.I). 550 to A.D. 700, two 
from Site II dated at A.D. 750 to A.l). 800, and one 
from Site III dated at A.D. 870 to A.l). 930. The hy- 
brid race, Pima Papago, predominates and the larger 
collection (Site I) contains a few specimens similar to its 
parents, Chapalote and Maiz de Ocho. The latter appear 
to be parental-type segregates from the hybrid rather 
than independently derived pure entities (Table IV). 

Pima Papago is presumed to have been more success- 
ful at first than its introduced parent, Maiz de Ocho and, 
thereby, to have traveled northward from the Sierra 

Madre Occidental at a faster pace. It is unfortunate that 
more specimens were not available from Site III. The 
single specimen available was of a modified form of Maiz 
de Ocho which may well represent a segregate from the 
hybrid. 

Apparently in the more northerly climates natural 
selection favors the eight-rowed derivatives. Further 
north across the boundary into southeastern Colorado, 
the Chapalote type segregates almost disappear while 

[ ;j2(i ] 



TABLE IV 
MAIZE FROM THREE SITES AT ARTIFICAL LEG, NEW MEXICO 



Sample Number 



No. Kerne 
Rov/s 



Cupu 
Widrh(mm 






T 



Internode 
Length(mm) 



Cupule 
Shape w/t 



Race 



Site!, Pithouse 6, West Cist Floor: A.D.550 to A. D. 700 



Site II, Pithouse 4, Fill: A.D . 750 to A.D . 800 



BAL-35/1 1 



II 



25/12 



12 

14 



5.5 
5.7 



3.5 
3.7 



1.57 
1.54 



BAL-35/1 


14 


6.9 


3.0 


2.30 


Pima Papago 


" 35/2 


12 


5.9 


3.0 


1.96 


Pima Papago 


" 35/3 


12 


4.5 


3.2 


1.43 


Chapalote 


" 35/4 


8 


10.0 


3.2 


3.10 


Maiz de Ocho 


" 35/5 


12 


5.1 


3.5 


1.46 


Pima Papago 


" 35/6 


14 


4.8 


3.4 


1.41 


Chapalote Mix 


11 35/7 


10 


5.2 


3.6 


1.45 


Pima Papago 


" 35/8 


14 


3.8 


2.0 


1.90 


Pima Papago 


" 35/9 


16 


5.9 


3.0 


1.97 


Pima Papago 


" 35/1 


12 


4.9 


3.1 


1.58 


Chapalote 



Pima Papago 
Pima Papago 



Site III, Pithouse 1, Fill: A.D . 870 to A.D . 930 



BAL-35/1 3 



10 




Mafz de Ocho Mix 



[ 3-27 ] 



Maiz de Ocho germplasm predominates. Here in the 
Chacuaco Canyon area, Chapalote was reduced to only 
two percent while Maiz de Ocho occurred at 22.8 per- 
cent, Maiz de Ocho Mix at 36.9 percent and the inter- 
mediate hybrid type (Pima Papago) at 36.3 percent from 
a total of 201 cobs (Galinat and Campbell, 1967). As 
the distribution progressed onto the Plains and north- 
eastward, the frequency of pure Maiz de Ocho increased. 
Nevertheless, even the northern flints may exhibit some 
degree of Chapalote germplasm derived from their an- 
cestral mixing in the Southwest such as is manifest by 
the flinty kernels or the occasional kernel row numbers 



of over eight. 



Sl'MMAlH 



The radiocarbon date of 18=*= 138 B.C. is the earliest 
North American date yet reported for the introduced 
race of maize, Maiz de Ocho, or its hybrid, Pima Papago, 
involving the indigenous race, Chapalote. The early date 
comes from the BK- 1.5 Site about 12A miles to the west 
and 1000 feet higher than the Albuquerque area of the 
Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Older remains 
of the original pure form of Maiz de Ocho probably will 
be discovered in Chihuahua and Sonora, perhaps near 
the valleys draining to the west coast of Mexico. From 
there, it is presumed to trace to South America where 
it has botanical affinities with the Colombian race, Ca- 
buya (Roberts et al., 1957)- The early presence of the 
hybrid Pima Papago in New Mexico rather than the 
pure Maiz de Ocho parent can be attributed to an in- 
creased adaptability, vigor and productivity associated 
with outcrossing to the indigenous race, Chapalote. The 
eight-rowed parent remains in a semi-hybrid condition 
in the form of Harinoso de Ocho in northwestern Mexico 
(Wellhausen et al., 1952), while it has assorted out to an 

! 328 



increasing pure race as it spread onto the Plains and to 
the Northeast in its well known forms of northern flour 
and northern flint. The presumed Colombian ancestor, 
Cabuya, is a highland race, and this might account for 
some pre-adaptation to high altitudes and northern lati- 
tudes in United States, as exemplified by the early distri- 
bution of Maiz de Ocho (Galinat and Gunnerson, 1903). 
The Maiz de Ocho from the lUt-45 Site was moved 
by its cultivators to sites with moist soil along the river 
after a protracted dry period made the mesa unsuitable 
for the growth of their maize. At the lower elevations, 
it became further mixed with the older indigenous race, 
Chapalote, in Basketmaker III times at the end of the 
Alameda Phase. The radiocarbon date of A. 13. 370± 
108 marks the introduction of this eight-rowed maize 
into the strata at Boca Negra Cave. A somewhat later 
date of A.l). 550 to A.D. 700 follows for this race just 
north of Albuquerque at the Artificial Leg Sites. lSy 
A.D. 1010 Maiz de Ocho had reached the Blain Site in 
Ohio (Galinat, 1909) and by A.D. 1125±70 the Miller 
Site in Ontario (Kenyon, 1908). While the frequency 
and purity of Maiz de Ocho increased during its spread to 
the Northeast, some traits of Chapalote derived from an 
ancestral mixing in the Southwest may still be recognized 
in the Canadian and New England flint corn varieties. 



[ 329 ] 



LITKUATURE CITED 



Antevs, E. 195.5. Geologic-climatic dating in the West. American 

Antiquity 20(4) : 317-335. 

Campbell, J.M. and F.H. Ellis. 1952. The Atrisco Sites: Cochise 
manifestations in the Middle Rio Grande Valley. American An- 
tiquity 17(3): 211-221. 

Cutler, H.C. 1952. A preliminary survey of plant remains of Tula- 
rosa Cave. Chicago Museum of Natural History. Fieldiana : Anthro- 
pology 40: 461-479, 

Frisbie, T.R. 1967. The excavation and interpretation of the Artifi- 
cial Leg Kasketmaker Ill-Pueblo I Sites near Corrales, New Mex- 
ico (unpubl. M. A. Thesis, Univ. of New Mexico, Dept. of Anthro- 
pology). 

Galinat, W.C. 1970. Maize from the Blain Site in Ohio: in O.H. 
Prufer. Archaeology of the Blain Site. Monograph, Western Re- 
serve Univ. Press. (In press.) 

— and II.. I. Ituppe. 1961. Further archaeological evidence on the 
effects of teosinte introgression in the evolution of modern maize. 
Bot. Mus. Leatf. Harvard Univ. 19: 163-181. 

— and J.H. Gunnerson. 1963. Spread of eight-rowed maize from 

the prehistoric Southwest. Bot. Mus. Leafi. Harvard Univ. 20: 
1 17-160. 



and R.G. Campbell. 1907. The diffusion of eight-rowed maize 

from the Southwest to the Central Plains. Mass. Agric. Exp. Sta. 
Mem. Ser. 1 : 1-16. 

Jones, V.H. 1949. Maize from the Davis Site; its nature and inter- 
pretation: in U.P. Newell and A.D. Krieger, The George C. Davis 

Site, Cherokee County, Texas. Soc. for Amer. Archaeology Memoir 
5 : 239-249. 

Kenyon, VV.A. 1968. The Miller Site. Occasional Paper 14, Royal 
Ontario Museum, Toronto. 

Mangelsdorf, P.C. and C.E. Smith, Jr. 1949. New archaeological 
evidence on evolution in maize. Bot. Mus. LeaH. Harvard I niv. 

IS : 213-247. 



330 



Mangelsdorf, P.C. and 11. H. Lister. 1956. Archaeological evidence 
on the evolution of maize in northwestern Mexico. Bot. Mus. Leaf!. 
Harvard Univ. 17: 151-178. 

, R.S. MacNeish and W.C. Galinat. 1967. Prehistoric maize, 



teosinte, and Tripsacum from Tamaulipas, Mexico. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 
Harvard Univ. 22 : 33-63. 

Reinhart, T.R. 1967a. The Alameda Phase: An early Basketmaker 
III culture in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. South- 
western Lore 33: 24-32. 

. 1967b. The Rio Rancho Phase: A preliminary report on early 

Basketmaker culture in the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mex- 
ico. American Antiquity 32: 458-470. 

. 1968. Late Archaic Cultures of the Middle Rio Grande Valley, 



New Mexico. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of New 
Mexico, Albuquerque. 

Roberts, L.M., U.J. Grant, R. Ramirez E., W.H. Hatheway and 
D.L. Smith/// collaboration with P.C. Mangelsdorf. 1957. Races of 
Maize in Colombia. Nat. Acad. Sci.-Nat. Res. Council Pub. 510, 
1 53 pp. 

Wellhausen, E.J., L.M. Roberts and E. Hernandez X, in collabora- 
tion with P.C. Mangelsdorf. 1952. Races of Maize in Mexico. The 
Bussey Institution of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 223 pp. 



[331 ] 



3 









BOTANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



7 



Camijuidce, Massachusetts, Junk 29, 1970 Vol. 22, No. 10 



ETHNOGYNECOLOGICAL NOTES IN THE 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY HERBARIA 

15 Y 

Siri vox Rkis Altschul 



Plants used by primitive societies for the maintenance 
or restoration of health have drawn the attention of 
medical researchers in modern times. Those species 
which, however vaguely, have offered hope for relief 
from cancer, heart disease, mental illness and diverse 
metabolic disorders have aroused probably greatest in- 
terest up to the present. Among the plants which remain 
for the most part unexplored as to their pharmacological 
potentials are species which have been employed in con- 
nection with the functions and diseases of the reproduc- 
tive tract of the human female. As a branch of ethno- 
medicine, this field might be called ethnogynecology. 
I use the term here to include, as well, ethnoobstetrics, 
embracing the practices surrounding pregnancy, labor 
and the puerperium in primitive cultures. 

A number of species of plants previously little known 
for their involvement in ethnogynecology recently has 
been brought to light as the result of a large-scale search 
carried out during the last decade at Harvard University. 
This paper is one among several which have dealt with 
medicinal folklore in general, 1 with psychopharmacolo- 
gy, 2 with unusual food plants 3 and with plants used to 
treat children's diseases, 4 all based on data retrieved 



from the survey. 



[ 333 ] 



In 1962, Dr. Richard Evans Schultes and I set up a 
search for botanical folklore of potential interest to health 
and medical sciences.* Projects with this objective are 
not new. Ethnobotanical information has been gathered 
traditionally from both old and new writings in anthro- 
pology and botany, from archaeological materials and 
from field work. We believe that our project was unique 
in that it relied exclusively on mainly unpublished data 
from labels accompanying herbarium specimens. In live 
years, a sheet by sheet examination of over 2, 500, 000 
specimens of flowering plants in the combined herbaria 
of the Arnold Arboretum and Gray Herbarium of Har- 
vard University was completed. These specimens span a 
century and a half and are worldwide in representation. 
From these repositories the harvest amounted to nearly 
7,000 notes from over 5,000 species. Materials ranging 



from magic to chemistry were recorded there, wherever 
was some hint of the presence of biodynamic agents. All 
species were checked in Uphof's Dictionary of Economic 
Plants' in order to eliminate from our compilation al- 
ready well known uses. One exception which was made 
to this procedure was in conserving any note which ex- 
tended the geographic representation of a known use. 

The search was undertaken in the belief that the major 
herbaria of the world represent untapped reservoirs of 
vital data. In some instances, they might provide the 
only remaining clues to the materia medica and nutritional 

*The project was supported in turn by Smith, Kline and French 
Laboratories, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Eli 
Lilly Research Laboratories. It was sponsored by the Botanical Mu- 
seum of Harvard University. The author is indebted to Dr. Schultes 
for his encouragement and guidance. She is grateful also to Profes- 
sors Richard A. Howard and Reed C. Rollins, Directors respectively 
of the Arnold Arboretum and Gray Herbarium of Harvard University, 
for their generous permission to use these two herbaria. This paper 



was presented on August 31, 1969, at the XI International Botanical 
Congress (under Lthnobotany), in Seattle, Washington. 

[ 834 ] 



patterns of peoples now extinct or whose cultures have 
been absorbed or destroyed by civilization. In other in- 
stances, they might serve to point out species which have 
not been used by man but which, on the basis of field 
observations, lead one to believe that they could be de- 
veloped as economic plants. It was felt that the accelerat- 
ing expansion of urbanization and forced constriction of 
natural areas make it urgent to gather and study all 
possibly useful species before living representatives in 
nature inadvertently are extinguished. 

Out of the entire body of notes extracted from the 
herbarium search, about 100 notes fall within the class 
of ethnogynecology as defined above. These 100 or so 
notes represent as many field collections and nearly as 
many species. It is likely that many additional species 
from our notes are employed for the same purposes but 
are unrecognizable as such on the basis of the field notes 
alone. For example, in the newly completed index to 
our notes, there are over 400 species described only as 
"medicinal plants". There are almost 200 species which 
are reputed analgesics. Some 8.5 species are used for 
stomach disorders. Increasingly fewer numbers are em- 
ployed as astringents; against abdominal spasms; as 
aphrodisiacs; for treating anemia; in baths; and as 



anti-con vulsants. 
Of the romihlv 



h are th 



paper, 38% have to do with the period after labor known 
as the puerperium. Twenty-one per cent relate to treat- 
ment of venereal disease, not always indicating, it must 
be acknowledged, whether for males or females. Eleven 
per cent deal with menstruation. Nine per cent refer to 
"female disorders"'. Eight per cent have to do with 
labor or childbirth. Another S°/o relate directly to birth 
control. The remainder concerns galactagogues and 
plants used during the course of pregnancy. Needless 

[ 335 



to say, some notes overlap more than one category. 
Fifty families of flowering plants are represented 
among these notes. Thirty of these families have yielded 
one note each, which suggests a scattered distribution 
of ethnogynecological uses among the flowering plants. 
Twelve families produced two notes each. The Borag- 
inaceae and Labiatae are represented each by three notes, 
the Gramineae by four, the lAUaceae five notes. The 



Leguminosae had six, Euphorbiaceae eight, Compositae 
VI and Rubiaceae 13. 

At least 35°/o of the plants are said to be eaten or, in 
some form, drunk. Sixteen per cent are made into de- 
coctions or infusions, most of which probably are also 
orally administered. Fourteen per cent are employed 
externally, including in baths. Two per cent are inserted 
vaginally. Thirty-three percent of the notes do not re- 
veal the modes of employment. 

Seventy per cent of the ethnogynecological notes indi- 
cate the parts of plants used. Roots are said to be used 
in nearly half of these notes. Leaves are designated in 
almost a third. The rest of the notes cite, in order of 
decreasing importance, barks, the entire plant, fruits, 
flowers and latex. 

Of the 87 genera represented among these ethnogyn- 
ecological notes, 33 are virtually unknown economically. 
Three quarters of the species are similarly unknown for 
economic purposes of any sort. 

I should like to cite some of the field notes associated 
with species of economically obscure genera. As already 
stated, the largest group of ethnogynecological notes 
concerns the puerperium. In this category, sundry spe- 
cies can be cited from the Philippine Islands. For ex- 
ample, Schizost achy urn Lumampao (C. O. Frake 567, 
Gramineae) and Kadsura scandens (C\ (). Frake 578, 
Schisandraceae) are used as post partem medicines. The 



roots of Knevia glomerata (C. O. Frake 569, Myristica- 
ceae) and Phytocrene Blancoi (C O. Frake 502, Icacina- 

ccae) are boiled and drunk during puerperium. The roots 

of Melicope monophylla (C (). Frake 674, Rutaceae) are 
pounded and drunk, while those of Aphana sp. (CO. 
Frake 38140, Icacinaceae) are applied in some manner. 
The bark of Neonauclea formicaria (C O. Frake 566, 
Rubiaceae) is boiled and drunk. The genus Cyrtandra 
(C Cumingii, R. B. Fox 5052; Cyrtandra sp. , Ml). 
Sulit 9974, Ge.sneriaecae) is used in association with 
bleeding following childbirth. A noteworthy claim is 
made for an indeterminate species of Polyosma (M. 1). 
Sulit 3443, Saxifragaceae) : "Decoction of roots given 
to women who gave birth — after delivery women can 
immediately walk — accordin 

From South America, one might cite Tourneforti 

brevilobata ( W. H. Camp 2560, Boraginaceae) : in Ecus 

dor, "Infusions of lvs. drunk by women a day or tw 
after childbirth to 'clean everything out' ". 

In association with the puerperium, one could includ 
reputed galactagogucs, such as Epigynum Mi 
{Ismail § Millard s.n.: K. L. No. 187, Apoey 
from Malaya. From Indochina, the follow 
ported for Desmos Hancei (Poilanc 1184, Annonacec 
". . . les Indigenes . . . emploient les rameaux et feui 
pour faire un breuvage qu'ils font prendre au fern 
apres accouchement pour augmenter la secretion lact 
ils donncrait e£ralement des fruits comestibles". 



S' 1 '.'.' 



The second largest group of ethnogynecological notes 
gathered relates to venereal disease. At least two species 
are represented from the Solomon Islands : Faradaya sp. 

(#. F. Kajewski 2543, Verbenaceae) "... in common 

with other vines is used for gonorrhea, the bark is macer- 
ated with water, the resulting concoction being drunk"*. 

Cremastus sceptrum (Williams § Assis 7343, Bignonia- 



ceae) is supposed to be the source of a root-derived syrup 

"Good for syphilis". 

There are various examples from the New World: in 

El Salvador, Campelia zanonia (P. C. Standley 19320, 
Commelinaceae) is a "Remedy for gonorrhoea". In Bo- 
livia, Pothomorphe peltata (J. Steinbach 5536, Pipera- 
ceae) is used "... contra llagas sipiliticas". Three spe- 
cies may be included from Mexico: Mascagnia septen- 
trionalis (G. Thurber 901, Malpighiaceae) was used at 
least a century ago, the root being a putative specific 

against syphilis. A "remedy for gonorrhoea" comes 

from Ageratum conyzoides (P. C. Standley 19220, Com- 
posit ac). The macerated leaves of Hintonia hit [flora 

G. B. Hinton Herb. No. 3413, 4317, Rubiaceae) are 

taken internally for malaria and pinto. Pinto, or pinta, 

is the common name in Mexico for a form of trepone- 

matosis, an infection closely related to venereal syphilis. 

In Africa, there is Sabicea Vogelii (G-. J\ S. Elliot 



4175, Rubiaceae) "Used for gonorrhea by Natives. . /" 

The third and fourth largest categories of cthnogyn- 
ecological notes pertain to menstruation and "female 
disorders", respectively. 'These notes deserve special at- 
tention. The plants in question apparently arc used to 
treat what appear to be, for the most part, routine func- 
tional and minor ailments. But there is the possibility 
that at least some of these plants act, in fact, as regula- 
tors of reproductivity. As unrecognized birth control 
agents — for instance, as abortifacients or promoters of 
fertility — these species would be of considerable interest 
in connection with human population studies. 

Plants in this category include Po/lia thyrsifolia (C. 

Prake 491, Commelinaceae) in the Philippine Islands: 
"Leaves applied for amenorrhea". 

In the West Indies, Tournefortia volubilis (S. Kings 
140, Boraginaccae) is "Used for female trouble' 9 . Here, 

338 ] 



too, Eleutherine bulbosa (J). Taylor SO, Iridaccae) is 

". . . used as a cure for irregular menstruation and meno- 
pause". In Peru, E. plicata (F. Woytkowski 5744) pro- 
duces bulbs from which a decoction is made for treating 



» » » 



hemorrhages. Bulbostylis capillaris (W. A. Archer 4931, 
Gramineae) from Paraguay is "Sold by herb dealers in 
market at Asuncion ... as blood purifier in female dis- 
orders". In El Salvador, Polypremum procumbens (Dr. 
A. Van Sever en s.n. , Loganiaceae) is believed to be a 

"Remedy for 'metritis 

There are three Mexican Compositae of interest: Hap- 
lopappus spinulosus (Dr. Gregg 6) over a century ago 
was decocted for "... disorders of uterus detention of 
catamenia". Franscria ambrosioides (H. S. Gentry 1>136) 
was used as recently as 19.*>5 for "female trouble", the 
roots being cooked in water. In the same year, it was 
reported of Viguiera montana (H. S. Gentry 1288) that 

Women put leaves on stomach to cause menses to flow, 
'por sale la sangre" ". 



. . 



dent 



those few species which are claimed directly to be able 
to control human reproduction. These species represent 
the sixth largest category of ethnogynecological notes. 
They are included at this point, out of sequence, because 
of their relationship with the two foregoing categories. 
One might cite here Vochysia lomatophylla (F. Woyt- 
kowski 6021. Foehnsiaceae). collected in Peru in 19(50: 



i . 



d by Campa trib 



In the Compositae, Iostepliane heterophylla (H. S. Gen- 
try 684-9) was reported from Mexico in 1941 to have 
tuberous roots "... decocted for medicine; makes 

women fertile". 

The fifth largest category of ethnogynecological notes 
is made up of plants administered during labor, or in 
childbirth. To here, all examples cited have come from 

[ a;?9 ] 



genera scarcely known for their utility to man in any con- 
text. Those which follow represent genera which already 
enjoy economic standing of some sort but whose herein 
named uses are not widely known. 

A number of examples is to be found from the Philip- 
pine Islands. An indeterminate species of Ijoranthus 



(G. E. Edano 1999, Loranthaceae) bears leaves which 
are pounded in a mortar and applied to the stomach be- 
fore childbirth. Glochidion cauliflorum (31. J). Sulit 3297, 
Euphorbiaceae) is used as follows: "Decoction of roots 
mixed with roots of cacao and coilee given to women for 



quick delivery". An ". . . infusion of the roots . . ." of 

Ocimum sanction (G. E. Edano 1618, Labiatae) ". . . is 

given to mothers for childbirth". The use of Ocimum 
reminds one of recent work on Nepcta Cataria 1 and Salvia 
divinorum,*'* both also mints. The last two genera ap- 
pear to contain psychopharmacological constituents. Is 
it possible that Ocimum may produce a similar intoxica- 
tion and be used in primitive childbirth somewhat as the 
plant-derived hypnotic scopolamine has been employed 
in modern labor? 

Two species in the Lcguminosae might be cited from 
the Caroline Islands: Pterocarpus indicus (C. C. Y.JVong 
4W) produces leaves which are pounded to fine particles 
and applied for vaginal ruptures. Women ". . . express 

the leaves . . . " of Phaseolus adenanthus (C.C. Y. Wong 

302) "... and drink the sap for labor pains". 

In Ecuador, Heliotropium argenteum (E. Prieto 2555, 
lioraginaceae) is employed to prepare an ''Infusion of 
leaves given to women who have tits and spasms during 

childbirth". This genus has been recorded previously as 
possessing medicinal properties but not, to my knowl- 
edge, as an antispasmodic. 5 

The smallest category of ethnogynecological notes re- 
lates to pregnancy. It encompasses only two species, 

[ 340 ] 



from the Gramineae. Pennisetum alopecuroides (C. O. 
Frake 512) from the Philippine Islands has roots which 
are ". . . applied to stomach to reduce size in pregnancy 

(!)*' Cypcrus brevifolius (S. F. Kajewski 276) is used in 

the New Hebrides Islands, where it is macerated with 
other plants and drunk for good health during pregnancy. 
I should not leave this subject without a word on 
aphrodisiacs. They have not been included among ethno- 
gynecological notes. Possible aphrodisiacs number possi- 
bly fewer than 15 among all notes from the herbarium 
search. Perhaps the most intriguing entry is little known 
Centropogon calycinus {Y. Mexia 7701, Campanulaceae) : 
in Ecuador, it is "Used as a love potion". Mallotus 
Poilanei (M. Poilane 26084, Euphorbiaceae) belongs to 
a medicinal genus 5 but is reported from Indochina as 
having a "Racine tonique et aphrodisiaque". Jatropha 
angusti {J. West 3796, C. Vargas C.4-08, Euphorbiaceae), 



f M 



also from a medicinal genus, 5 is reputed to be an aphro- 
disiac in Peru. Pty chop et alum olacoides (G-. Stahel 269, 
Olacaceae) is supposed in Surinam to act as an aphro- 
disiac; the species also is the source ( 
employed in medicine. 5 

Among alleged love charms are species of the genera 
Loranthus (Loranthaceae), Aristolochia {Aristolochia- 
ceae), Canavalia (Leguminosac), and Premna {Verben- 
aceae). Sundry common names suggest aphrodisiacal 
properties: among these I have included plants called 
Love Bush", "Amor Seco" and "Matrimonio Viejo". 

There is one antaphrodisiac : ofDavilla lacunosa (L. O. 
Williams 5098a, Dilleniaceae) in Brazil, it is said : "Give 
tea to animals and they are impotent". 

In conclusion, I want to say that species of plants 
associated with ethnogynecology warrant careful inspec- 
tion by modern gynecological and obstetrical pharma- 
cologists. I would emphasize further that, in considering 

[341 ] 



i . 



these species, one must also expand one's view of their 
possible usefulness beyond the purposes for which they 
are employed in the simplistic contexts of their ethno- 
botanical origins. Today we can cure venereal disease; 
we have anodynes for dysmenorrhea and synthetic opi- 
ates for labor. The major value of the notes referred to 
may lie in how they might bear incidentally upon such 
fields as cancer, heart, mental and metabolic research. 
It is in such a questioning posture that we hope to present 
these and all our materials to science in a forthcoming 
catalogue. 

Today, not even ten years after our first thoughts on 
searching herbaria, we inevitably ask whether it is not 
imperative to attempt now — perhaps through the inter- 
national cooperation of various scientists and govern- 



ments- — to preserve living examples of all extant species, 
including economic and presently non-economic plants. 
I take this opportunity to recommend that coordinated 
efforts to this end would be particularly fruitful in the 
so-called underdeveloped nations where, it so happens, 
one encounters the most promising of ethnobotanical 
raw materials, directly from the indigenous societies 
which give birth to their uses. If civilized man does not 
act now, he may leave his descendants irretrievable losses 
and, possibly, the undoing of his own species through 
want of some missing botanical essential to a future 
generation. 



[ 342 



LITERATURE CITED 



1. von Reis, S. 1962. Herbaria : sources of medicinal folklore. Econ. 
Bot. 16: 283-287. 



2. Altschul, S. von Reis. 1967. Psychopharmacological notes in the 



Harvard University herbaria. Lloydia 30: 192-196. 



3. Altschul, S. von Reis. 1968. Unusual food plants in herbarium 
records. Econ. Bot. 22: 293-296. 



4. Altschul, S. von Reis. Ethnopediatric notes in the Harvard Uni- 
versity herbaria, ined. 



5. Uphof, J. C. Th. 1959. Dictionary of economic plants. Weinheim, 
Germany: J. Cramer. 



6. Crosby, A. W. 1969. The early history of syphilis: A reappraisal. 
Araer. Anth. 71: 218-227. 



7. Waller, G. R., G. H. Price and E. D. Mitchell, 1969. Feline at- 
tractant, cis, trans-nepetalactone : metabolism in the domestic cat. 
Science 164: 1281-1282. 



8. Epling, C. and CD. Jativa-M. 1962. A new species of Salvia from 
Mexico. Bot. Mus. LeaH. Harvard Univ. 20: 75-76. 



9. Wasson, It. G. 1962. A new Mexican psychotropic drug from the 
mint familv. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 20: 77-84. 



[ 343 ] 



DE PLANTIS TOXICARIIS E MUNDO 
NOVO TROPICALE COMMENTATIONES VII 

SEVERAL ETHNOTOXICO LOGICAL NOTES 
EROM THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON 

BY 

Richard Evans Sciiultes 



Many of our ethnotoxicological observations made 
amongst Indians of the northwest Amazon indicate in- 
teresting uses of plants the genera of which have never 
been chemically investigated. The several species dis- 
cussed below fall verv definitelv into this category and 



would seem to represent areas profitable for phvtochemi- 
cal enquiry. 

These notes are a continuation of investigations into 
poisonous plants of the Xew World tropics which I have 
been carrying out since 11)11 and which is currently being 
supported by a grant from the National Institutes of 

Health (No. LM-GM00071-01). 

The voucher specimens cited are preserved in the Gray 
Herbarium, the Arnold Arboretum and the Economic 
Herbarium of Oakes Ames of Harvard University or in 



the Herbario Nacional Colombiano. The illustrations 

were prepared by Mr. Josua B. Clark and the late Mr. 

John Stan well- Fletcher. 

Araceae 

No chemical studies appear to have been carried out 
on the genus Urospatha. The juice from the rhizome of 

[ 345 



a Brazilian species — Urospatha caudata Schott — is used 
medicinally in the treatment of skin troubles (Peckholt, 
T. : Pharm. Rundshau 10 (181)2) 279, 11 (1893) 379). 



Urospatha sagittaefolia Schott Amid. (1853) 4. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Amazonas, Leticia and 
vicinity. In swamp. Spathe green externally, white-green within. 
Stem mottled brown-green. Height (J feet." August 29-September 
12, 1966. R.E. Schultes, Ii. F. Raffatf et 1). Soyarto JjO-JO. 



A field spot test with modified Dragendorf reagent in- 
dicated that Urospatha sagittaefolia is alkaloid-positive. 



Urospatha somnolenta R. E. Schultes in Hot. 

Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 18(1958) 123. 

Colombia : Comisaria del Vaupes, Rio Kuduyari, Cachivera de Ita- 
pinema. August 14, 1960. R.E. Schultes 22589. 



'This is the second collection referable to Urospatha 
somnolenta. Like the plant from the type locality, 
Schultes 22580 grew alongside a quartzitic rapids in 

swampy holes in the rock. The locality of this second 

collection belongs geologically to the same formation as 
the type locality. 

The Kubeo Indians at Yapoboda consider the root of 

Urospatha somnolenta to be toxic if ingested, yet the 

ashes of the entire plant are employed medicinally in the 

form of a poultice on ulcers and infected cuts. 'The Kubeo 
name of the plant is o-me'-na. 



Myrsixaceae 



Conomorpha citrifolia Mez in Engler Pflanzenr. 

\ Myrsin. (1902) 256. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Vaupes, Rio Paraparana, Randal Na-hoo- 



v it 



gaw-he. Flowers whitish yellow. Small tree along hank." Septem- 
ber 1952. R.E. Schultes $ I. Cabrera 17593. 

[ 346 ] 



The Puinave Indians, sonic of whom have migrated 
into the Apaporis basin, call this treelet yoom-dd-ka and 
rasp the bark into chicha to impart to it a rather peppery 
taste. It is recommended also as a febrifugal tea. 



Apocynaceae 
Ambelania Lopezii Woodson ex R.E. Schult. in 

Hot. Mus. Leaf]. Harvard Univ. 15 (1951) 76. 

Colombia : Comisaria del Vaupes, Itio Guainia, below San Antonio, 
Cano del Loro. Molongo. Flowers white, fragrant. Growing at edge 
of water." June 194*8. R.E. Schult es et F. Lopez 10132. — Comisaria 
del Vaupes, Rio Kananari, Cachivera Palito. Bush. Mowers fragrant, 
white/' July 25, 1951. R.E. Schult es et I. Cabrera 13175.— Rio Apa- 
poris, Itaudal Yayacopi (La Playa) and vicinity. 'Small tree. Flow- 
ers white, verv fragrant. Latex white." August 1 S , 1952. Srhultes 
et Cabrera 16968. — Rio Piraparana, middle course. Four meters tall. 
Flowers white, fragrant." September 1, 1952. Srhultes et Cabrera 
17135, — Rio Piraparana, Cano Teemeena. Large bush. Flowers 
white, fragrant. Latex white." September t>, 1952. Schultes et Cabrera 

17245. 

The Barasana Indians boil the leaves of this bushy 
treelet with the bark of Distictella raccmosa and Mar- 
tine/la obovata to make one of their arrow poisons. 

Amongst the related Makunas of the same area, who 

know this plant SLSicy-gaic-iio-mee'-ko, it is apparently not 
employed for this purpose but reputedly as a fish poison. 



BlGNOXIACEAE 

Distictella racemosa (Bur. § K. Scltttm. eoc Mart.) 

Urban in Vcddc Repert. 14 (1916) 310. 

Colombia : Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Apaporis, Soratema (above 
mouth of Kio Kananari) and vicinity. Alt. about 900 feet. Liana. 
Flowers cream-white. July 31, 1951. R. E. Schultes et 1. Cabrera 
13215. — Same local it v. Woodv vine. Flowers white. Barasana name 
= mee-tsee-boo-koo f -Ha." January 28, 1952. R.E. Schultes et 1. Cabrera 
14990. 

The bark of Distictella raccmosa is one of the ingredi- 



f 347 



Plate LXXX 




J B 



AMBELAN 



Lo p e z i i 



W oods 



[ 348 ] 



Plate LXXX1 



if **n 




Ambelania Lopezii Woodson in a Hooded caatinga near the conflu- 
ence of the Ilios Guainia and Negro, Colombia. 

Photograph: U.K. S< iiultes 



Plate LXXXII 




350 



ents of a type of curare prepared by the Barasana Indians 
living on the Rio Apaporis near the mouth of the Kan- 
anari. The other plants said to be used in this preparation 
are the leaves of Ambelania Lopezii and the bark of 

Martinella obovata. The root of Distictella racemosa is 

reputedly very toxic. 



Martinella obovata {HBK.) Bureau et K. Schu- 
mann ex Martins Fl. Bras. 8, pt. 2 (1897) 161. 

Colombia: Comisaria del Amazonas, Rio Apaporis, Soratama (near 
mouth of Rio Kananari). January t28 , 195*2. R.E. Schultes et I. Cabrera 



The bark of Martinella obovata, together with the 
leaves of Ambelania Lopezii and the bark of Distictella 
racemosa, is utilized by the Barasana Indians in elaborat- 
ing on arrow poison. An infusion of the bark is said to 
be a febrifuge but dangerous to use. 



[ 351 ] 



Plate LXXX1II 




352 }